Amazing Argentina Historical Facts That You Will Absolutely Adore | Kidadl


Amazing Argentina Historical Facts That You Will Absolutely Adore

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Officially called the Argentine Republic, Argentina is a country located in the southern part of South America and is bordered by Brazil to the northeast, Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, South Atlantic Ocean, and Uruguay to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south.

The Argentine Republic is the largest Spanish-speaking country in the world and is only the second-largest country behind Brazil in South America. It is the fourth largest country in the Americas and the eighth-largest country in the world.

Argentina has an area of 1,073,500 sq mi (2,780,400 square km). Spanish is the national language of the country and the capital city Buenos Aires is the largest in Argentina. The official currency of Argentina is Peso. Argentina has everything, from glaciers to jungles, from pampas to the spectacular Andes mountains. The country is divided into 23 provinces under a federal republic system. The earliest recorded human from Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic era. The evidence of the presence of these early humans can be found in the cave of hands. Made by the Toldense Culture in 7370 BC, the paintings of left hands found in the cave are said to be 9370 years old. The pre-Columbian native population in Argentina can also be divided into three parts. The first is the basic hunters/gatherers group, the second is the advanced hunter/gatherers group, and the third is the farmers that made and used their pottery.

Argentina's history is mixed with that of Europe's. People from Europe first came to Argentina with Amerigo Vespucci in 1502. Pedro de Mendoza founded the tiny settlement of Buenos Aires, Argentina in 1536, but Buenos Aires was abandoned in 1541. Juan Diaz de Solis (1516) and Sebastian Cabot (1526) also arrived after Vespucci. Settlements were either kept or abandoned by these settlers and this continued for the next 200 years. The Spanish Empire subordinated the Argentine territory due to the enormous wealth found in the silver and gold mines of Bolivia and Peru. In 1776, Spain created the Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata. Before that Argentina was part of the Viceroyalty of Peru.

Argentina had to fight for its independence and this led to a lengthy civil war lasting until 1861. The fight for independence ran from 1810 to 1818. Buenos Aires became the capital of Argentina during this time and the country reorganized into a federation of provinces.

The Spanish arrived in the country and ruled it for 300 years. However, Spain's grip over the country loosened when British forces took over the capital Buenos Aires from the Spanish military in 1806 and also attacked the Falkland Islands or the Malvinas Islands. The year 1810 saw Napoleon's army conquering all major Spanish cities.

Argentina enjoys an exceptional climate diversity and it ranges from sub-polar in the extreme south to subtropical in the northern parts.

If you enjoy this article, why not also read about the Argentinian flag's meaning and Argentina's primary language here on Kidadl?

The History And Geography Of Argentina

Apart from the above-mentioned history related to the country, there are some fun facts about the history of Argentina.

The name of Argentina comes from the Latin word argentums which means silver. It comes from a legend that used to believe that the country had silver mountains. The first European explorers of the La Plata Basin named the land plate. Buenos Aires was only named the capital of Argentina in 1862. The country's culture and demographics were shaped by the huge influx of European immigrants during the time of stability and peace. This made Argentina's economic boom and it soon became the 10th wealthiest country per capita in the whole world by 1913. Argentina's population also grew five times between 1880 and 1910. However, Argentina went into an economic crisis soon after with a worldwide economic depression and a military coup.

Argentina soon was pushed back into underdevelopment with the crisis and political instability after 1930. Juan Peron, after many military leaders, was first fired and then jailed. He was the Minister of Welfare. A large uprising saw his freedom and he soon won the presidential election of 1946. Military forces rebelled again and Argentina's president was forced to run in 1955. The economy of the country could not be revived under military rule and Peron had to return. After his death, his wife got the presidency and when the Dirty War began, she was deposed by the military in 1976. She was the vice president of the country until the presidency happened subsequently the Dirty War (which begins when any suspected opponents of the government are killed or even jailed). Democracy only returned to Argentina in 1983. The first Muslim president of Argentina was elected in 1989 and he was named Carlos Menem. In 2001, Argentina saw five different presidents take the lead. The first female elected president of the country was in 2007.

The long length of Argentina ensures that the country is divided into four major parts - the northern subtropical swamps and woodlands, the wooded slopes of the Andes mountains of the west, semiarid and cold Patagonian Plateau in the far south, and the temperate region enclosing Buenos Aires. The mild climate helps farming and cattle raising. A large population of people lives in Buenos Aires, in fact, the Buenos Aires population is the largest in the country. Argentina also has many lakes in the Andes and also the second-largest river system in South America is present in this vast country. This river system, the Paraguay-Parana-Uruguay, is found from the northern Chaco region to the Rio de la Plata near Buenos Aires. Due to the big size, there are different climates in the country. The eastern border of Argentina is covered by the Atlantic Ocean.

Nature And Wildlife In Argentina

The national animal of Argentina is the Rufous hornero, a tiny songbird endemic to South America. South America sees a lot of nature and wildlife and Argentina possesses a lot of them too. On Argentina's border with Brazil, the beautiful Iguazú Falls is found.

Northeast Argentina features Iguazú Falls which consists of around 275 waterfalls and some of them are even tall as 262 ft (80 m). It is a true spectacle to see such beautiful waterfalls in a single place. The town named Puerto Iguazú is found where the Iguazú and Paraná rivers meet. The town looks across the rivers to Paraguay and Brazil. The Iguazú National Park was created in 1934 and the southernmost subtropical rainforest is found in the region of South America's continent. Called Argentina's biggest tourist attraction, this national park has tremendous waterfalls with some famous ones like Devil’s Gorge, Two Sisters, Three Musketeers, San Martin, and Adán and Eva. With around 2000 species of flora and 400 species of bird found in the national park, there are even a lot of butterflies and insects found in the area. Endangered species like giant anteaters, tapirs, jungle eagles, howler monkeys, ocelots, jaguars, coati, large toucans, broad-snouted caimans, and several bird species are found in this national park.

The Iguazú National Park is only one of 30 found in Argentina of South America. There are other national parks like the Perito Moreno Glacier in Patagonia which is the third-largest freshwater reserve in the world. It is the place where the glacier is growing instead of shrinking. Some other examples are  Los Alerces, Nahuel Huapi, Los Glaciareas, Baritú, and Tierra del Fuego.

You will also find fur seals, penguins, elephant seals, and sea lions on the coast of Patagonia. Sharks, dolphins, orcas, and salmon are common off the Atlantic coast. Flamingos, turtles, toucans, and tortoises are commonly seen in the subtropical north, while jaguar, cougar, ocelot, caiman, and crocodiles are seen in the north.

There are at least 30 National Parks in Argentina.

Argentina's Government

Argentina's government is a democratic system with three divisions - the Executive, the Legislative, and the Judiciary.

The National Congress is the legislative branch of the government. Senators and deputies are part of this branch of the government. The Executive branch of the Argentine government is led by the president and the Head of State. They lead the government. The leader also is given the title of the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. The Judiciary branch consists of federal judges and others with different jurisdictions. The country is a federal republic.

Fun Fact: Former political and economic strength was restored by Nestor Kirchner who was elected president in the year 2003. Likewise, there have been many presidents elected after being in political turmoil for many years.

Argentine People And Culture

Argentine people are warm and compassionate people who communicate in close contact with one another.

You will notice there are fewer native people in the country, unlike other countries in South America. 95% of the population comprises people of European descent, mostly from Spain, Italy, or Germany. When the Europeans came earlier, they brought diseases and much of the native population died then. Most people live near Buenos Aires, called the Paris of South America due to the various European influences. People of European descent ensure that the official language of the country is Spanish as most people speak the language, native or immigrants. Argentina is in fact the largest Spanish-speaking nation in Latin America.

The culture in the country is a mixture of European customs, Latin American, and native traditions. Pato is the national sport of Argentina.

Economics, Industry, And Land Use In Argentina

Argentina is a land of agriculture and manufacturing is the largest single sector in the nation's economy.

Argentina's economy is one of the most powerful in South America and agribusiness and ranching dominate the economy of the country. The climate is good in Argentina, which helps facilitate agriculture in most lands of the country. Cattle raising is second only to Brazil, and Argentina is the largest producer of grain in the region. The economy is going to rise when there is enough agricultural land in the region.

The Argentina map shows the division of the country into four parts as discussed before. The Pampas, which is one of the four major parts of Argentina, is the agricultural heartland of Argentina.

Here at Kidadl, we have carefully created lots of interesting family-friendly facts for everyone to enjoy! If you liked our suggestions for Argentina historical facts, then why not take a look at facts about the waterfall between Brazil and Argentina or interesting facts about Argentina.

Written By
Ritwik Bhuyan

<p>A skilled content writer, Ritwik holds a Bachelor's degree in English from Delhi University. He has refined his writing abilities through his past experience at PenVelope and his current role at Kidadl. In addition to his proficiency in writing, Ritwik has pursued his passion for flying by achieving CPL training and becoming a licensed commercial pilot. This diverse skill set highlights his commitment to exploring multiple fields. Ritwik's experience in the aviation industry has provided him with a unique perspective and attention to detail, which he brings to his writing.</p>

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