Battle Of The Plains Of Abraham Facts For History Lovers | Kidadl


Battle Of The Plains Of Abraham Facts For History Lovers

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The Battle of The Plains of Abraham, which is also known as the Battle of The Quebec, was fought on September 13, 1759.

This war was fought on the plateau outside the walls of Quebec City in New France, on the land of Abraham Martin dit L'Ecossais. C. It was a decisive battle of the Seven Year's War (French and Indian War).

The participants of this war were Great Britain, American colonists, Canadian Militia, France, First Nations (including Mi'kmaq, Wolastoqiyik (Maliseet), Potawatomi, Abenaki, Odawa, and Wendat). The Battle of The Plains of Abraham was an important mark in the Seven Years' War (French and Indian War, 1756-1563) fought in India, Europe, and North America. There was an alliance of Austria, France, Saxony, Russia, Sweden, and Spain. While on the other side, there was an alliance of Prussia, Hanover, and Britain. While France was focused on the war in Europe, Britain attacked French colonies abroad, as well as the French naval and merchant fleet, in the hopes of eliminating France as an economic rival. British attacks on the French coast were very weak at the start.

A few years of this conflict marked the victory of France as the French troops showcased their superiority over American allies. The British Commander, Edward Braddock of the British forces, was severely injured at the Fort Duquesne, while in 1758, Montcalm defeated a far larger British force near Fort Carillon. The British, on the other hand, began to make considerable gains within weeks after the latter occurrence. They took the fortification of Louisbourg on Île Royale (currently Cape Breton Island) on July 26, 1758, which led to the capture of additional French fortifications in Atlantic Canada. British ships could now sail up the Saint Lawrence River, leaving New France vulnerable. Wolfe, one of the expedition's brigadiers, was lauded in Britain and its colonies in America for his contribution in capturing the citadel.

The French army had resisted many of the British Attacks in North America, like the defensive battle of Fort Carillon by Montcalm, but still, by the year 1759, the British had already made significant gains. They took the fortress of Louisbourg on Île Royale (Cape Breton Island) on July 26, 1758, which followed the capture of additional French fortifications in Atlantic Canada and subjected New France to British ships that could now cruise up the St. Lawrence River. James Wolfe, one of the expedition's brigadiers, was lauded in Britain and its American colonies for his role in capturing the fort.

You can also read our Battle of Gallipoli and Battle of France articles on our website.

How did the Battle of The Plains of Abraham affect Canada?

The Battle of the Plains of Abraham's effects were major for Canada as their history and present were changed. It handed the British control of Quebec (subsequently New France) and put an end to French power in present-day Canada.

The Battle of the Plains of Abraham decided the fate of New France (a major key in influencing the birth of Canada). In 1763, the Treaty of Paris was signed to conclude the war, and the French government chose to maintain Guadeloupe rather than Quebec. Canada became a British territory after the conquest, with British institutions such as parliamentary governance and the king, as well as a majority Anglophone population. Until after WWII, most English-speaking Canadians considered themselves to be British. Canada's strong ties to Britain led to its participation in both the First and Second World Wars. Furthermore, the British attacks resulted in Canada becoming totally united for the first time, making residents acclimatize to each other's religions, culture, and languages for the first time. As a result, the Battle of the Plains of Abraham was a crucial event in the lead-up to Canada's confederation.

How long did the Battle of The Plains of Abraham last?

At the end of the three and a half month siege by British forces, the Battle of the Plains of Abraham did not even last for an hour. The British troops were under the command of General James Wolfe who successfully maintained a stand against the attack by the Canadian militia and French troops under Gen. Louis-Joseph and Maquis de Montcalm. They used new tactics for the resistance, which turned out to be very effective as most of the earlier tactics of the military formations had become very standard in European attacks. This war was fought on the plateau outside the walls of Quebec City in New France, on the land of Abraham Martin dit L'Ecossais. C. This war was a decisive war of the North American theater of the Seven Year's War (French and Indian War).

Both these generals were severely injured during this battle. James suffered three gunshots because of which he lost his life a few minutes after the start of the battle. Maquis Montcalm received a musket ball wound below the ribs the very next morning by the British attack. French forces tried to recapture Quebec in the spring following the war. In the battle of the Sainte-Foy where the French stronghold was over Quebec, the British retreated forcefully to which the French laid siege.

The French army fought various in-wars battles with Wolfe's army.

Who won the Battle of The Plains of Abraham?

The Battle of the Plains of Abraham marked a British victory against the French force. James Wolfe landed at L'Anse-au-Foulon on a cliff that was 58 ft (53 m) high and was about 1.86 mi (3 km) north of Quebec City. Many historians, after analyzing this move, have criticized it. But the British were very lucky as it did not have much defense.

The British naval invasion force started to operate in utter darkness and silence. The naval force battled with the powerful currents of St. Lawrence to have a successful British landing on September 13 at four in the morning and attack French positions from there. They soon established a good British command with the help of the British fleet. In 1759, Commanded by Col William Howe, light infantrymen of British force scrambled to the top of the cliff, forming a British line, destroying France's control over it. The French defenders were already in lesser numbers there.

Québec City was the capital city of New France. It was the only Catholic diocese that was situated north of Mexico. Whoever controlled that crucial site had complete control over the colony's access. The British planned to invade the St. Lawrence River Valley, New France's heartland, from three distinct sites, including Québec City. They dispatched 30,000 soldiers and sailors to conquer the capital. The French monarchy intended to protect their powerful position in North America, but their forces were enslaved in continental Europe, and the British navy's dominance hindered their ability to deploy reinforcements.

Why did the Battle on The Plains of Abraham happen?

Reaching the mid of the 18th century, Great Britain and France both wanted to dominate European trade. This rivalry finally came to a head in North America and sparked an official conflict among not only these countries but others as well, in the year 1756. This French-English battle took place on three different continents, which were North America, Europe, and Asia.

Both of these sides suffered a lot of loss and almost had a similar number of casualties. The French and British assault resulted in 658, and the French had 644. When the British defeated French commander Montcalm outside the city, they later turned to the forces of Bougainville to simultaneously attack the British position. They were outnumbered and later managed to force him to retreat to Charlesbourg. After retreating, Bougainville encountered Vaudreuil, who had already abandoned the Beauport shoreline (after the battle by the Wolfe's army on the northern shore) after hearing the defeat of Montcalm. The British force was now under the command of General Murray and started to attack Quebec.

The garrison, which was at Quebec, surrendered on September 18 under the command of De Ramezay. Bougainville, on Sept 24, changed the French position to Jacques-Cartier River, which was present on the east of the city. The battle of Quebec opened up the gates to control the New France by the British as the last obstacle in between to the British navy on the St. Lawrence River was removed because of this battle. Finally, in the year 1760, the British established their control over Montreal, which completed their conquest. In the year 1763, the treaty of Paris was signed to bring an end to the bloody war. France's government decided to keep Guadaloupe with them rather than Canada, as the former was a rich Caribbean island and the latter was an underpopulated and less profitable colony.

The Battle of the Plains of Abraham completely flipped the history of New France. After the defeat of the French force in the city of Quebec, the British became successful in establishing a strong presence. The French fleet of the French navy also got destroyed by the Royal British Navy. However, removing France as the North American power boosted the confidence of British colonies such as Massachusetts, New York, and Pennsylvania, which later sought more independence from the United Kingdom. The fight cemented British hold on Canada and paved the way for the American Revolution. The British triumph left a long legacy that influenced Canada's culture, borders, and identity.

Here at Kidadl, we have carefully created lots of interesting family-friendly facts for everyone to enjoy! If you liked our Battle of the Plains of Abraham facts, then why not take a look at our articles about the Battle of Jutland or the Battle of Chancellorsville?

Written By
Nidhi Sahai

<p>Dedicated and experienced, Nidhi is a professional content writer with a strong reputation for delivering high-quality work. She has contributed her expertise to esteemed organizations, including Network 18 Media and Investment Ltd. Driven by her insatiable curiosity and love for journalism and mass communication, Nidhi pursued a Bachelor of Arts degree from Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, graduating with distinction in 2021. During her college years, she discovered her passion for Video Journalism, showcasing her skills as a videographer for her institution. Nidhi's commitment to making a positive impact extends beyond her professional pursuits. Actively engaging in volunteer work, she has contributed to various events and initiatives throughout her academic career.</p>

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