Carl Jacobi Birthday & Fun Facts

Height, Age, Net Worth, Biography & More

Adewuyi Omotola
Jan 30, 2024 By Adewuyi Omotola
Originally Published on Aug 29, 2022
Edited by Deepali Singhal
Fact-checked by Adeleke Gbolafunmi
Keep reading to find more interesting facts about Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi.
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About Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi

Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi was a mathematician from Germany who contributed to the development of the theory of elliptic functions.

Jacobi, a gifted child, showed an early interest in mathematics. This was made possible by Lehman, his uncle, who taught him at home and also provided him with his early mathematics instruction.

His outstanding aptitude and brilliance in the subject were evident at a young age. By the age of 12, Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi was prepared to go to university. He eventually attended Berlin University in 1821 when he was 16 years old because of age restrictions. Jacobi earned his Ph.D. and went on to become a university professor, a job he held for most of his lifetime.

Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi made essential contributions to dynamics, elliptic functions, number theory, and differential equations while teaching mathematics. He wrote a large number of manuscripts, and some of them were published while he was alive and after. He was also an early proponent of the theory of determinants. He devised the functional determinant, which is currently named after him.

Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi died on February 18, 1851, from smallpox. He was laid to rest in Berlin. And because of his stature as a prominent German mathematician, his burial has been maintained at the Friedhof I der Dreifaltigkeits-Kirchengemeinde in Berlin's Kreuzberg district, 61 Baruther St.

He has a lunar crater that was named after him. Several mathematical theorems, equations, algorithms, sums, polynomials, symbols, and functions carry his name, recognizing his great contribution to the discipline.

Childhood And Education

On December 10, 1804, Carl Gustav Jacobi Jacob was born in Potsdam to a banker, Simon Jacobi. Carl was the second out of four children. Carl's eldest brother, Moritz von Jacobi, also pursued a career as an engineer and scientist.

Lehman, who was his uncle, first instructed Jacobi was first instructed about the fundamentals of mathematics and classical language. Jacobi began formal study at Potsdam Gymnasium at the age of 12.

Jacobi was schooled in German history, classical languages, and mathematics at the Gymnasium. He performed excellently in all subjects as a result of his uncle's excellent education, and he earned a promotion to senior level after six months.

Despite the fact that Jacobi was intelligent enough to attend university, the qualifying age of 16 years delayed his admittance. He remained a member of the higher class before the same ended in 1821.

He used his senior year to acquire more knowledge on topics such as mathematics, history, philology, and languages such as Greek and Latin. He conducted his own study by solving a quintic problem using radical numbers.

Carl registered at Berlin University in 1821. And during his first year, he balanced his interests in mathematics and philology. He impressed his lecturers with his exposure and mastery of the courses he offered.

Because the institution only taught basic mathematics, he proceeded with his personal studies of Langrage, Laplace, and Euler's more sophisticated works. He abandoned philology to pursue his initial love, mathematics in 1823.

He was certified to teach mathematics, Latin, and Greek in a high school in 1823. He was then given a post at Berlin's Joachimsthal Gymnasium, which he refused in order to seek a position in a university.

He graduated with a Ph.D. in philosophy in 1825. His dissertation gave analytical investigations of fraction theory. In order to be selected for a post at the university that year, he renounced his Jewish heritage and became a Christian.

Family and Relationship

Details about the family of Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi and his marital status remain unknown. However, it is on record that his father, Simon Jacobi, was a banker. Carl was the second of four children. Carl's eldest brother, Moritz von Jacobi, eventually became a physicist and engineer.

Career And Professional Highlights

Following his conversion to Christianity and receipt of his doctorate, Carl Gustav Jacobi was appointed as a lecturer at Berlin University from 1825 until 1826. He instructed students in the concepts of surfaces and curves.

He was named a professor of mathematics at Königsberg University in 1827 and got an appointment as a tenured professor at Königsberg University two years later. He left the position in 1842.

He became well-known because of his studies on elliptic functions and how they relate to elliptic theta functions. Adrien Marie Legendre, abrilliant French mathematician enthusiastically welcomed his research and discoveries.

The elliptic function theory, founded on four theta functions was initially developed by Jacobi. Theta functions have a significant role in mathematical physics because of their position in the inverse problem for periodic or quasi-periodic flow.

He published his elliptic function discoveries in 1829 in the work 'Fundamenta Nova Theoriae Functionum Ellipticarum'. The translation of the book is 'New Foundations Of The Theory Of Elliptic Functions.'

Carl found that hyperelliptic functions may be generated by inverting hyperelliptic integrals, just as elliptic functions can be generated by inverting elliptic integrals. The idea of abelian functions was later developed as a result of this discovery.

Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi discovered essential features of theta functions in his work in 1835, which featured the Jacobi triple product formula and functional equation. The study also contained q-series and hypergeometric series results.

He spearheaded the use of elliptic functions in number theory. He advanced C. F. Gauss' work by discovering additional proofs of quadratic reciprocity. He also propounded higher reciprocity laws, explorations of continuing fractions, and Jacobi sums.

He was an early proponent of determinants. He created the functional determinant, which carries his name, and has played a significant role in numerous analytical research.

He suffered a mental collapse in 1843. He went on a sabbatical and relocated to clear his head in Italy. He came back to Berlin the next year and enjoyed a royal pension until he died.

Jacobi became actively interested during the 1848 Revolution. He declared his candidacy for the Liberal Party. He delivered a thoughtless speech that lost him his royal annuity following the revolution's suppression. Eventually, his pension was reinstated because of his reputation and stature.

Best Known For…

Conducting significant research on elliptic functions and bringing about the Jacobian matrix, named after him.

He also made significant contributions to planetary theory. He left a large number of manuscripts at the time of his death, portions from which were published in Crelle's Journal. His Gesammelte Werke, German for a collected edition, was published by the Berlin Academy.

When he was alive, he conducted significant research in first-order partial differential equations and used them for differential equations of dynamics. The connection between his discovery and differential equations and dynamics is described in 'Vorlesungenüber Dynamik'. Currently, the Hamilton-Jacobi equation is frequently employed to explain quantum mechanics.

What awards did Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi win?

Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi was awarded as a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1836.

Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi's Hobbies And Interests

Jacobi pursued his interests and inclinations, and via his work "Fundamenta Nova Theoriae Functionum Ellipticarum" and subsequent articles in Crelle's Journal, he produced a revolutionary discovery in the field of elliptic functions. Jacobi's theory of elliptic functions based on four theta functions is crucial in mathematical physics.

Carl was very interested in differential equations and how they might be used in differential equations of dynamics.

Other Interesting Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi Facts And Trivia

  • Despite having Jewish parents, Jacobi converted to Christianity in order to gain admission to a university.
  • The first Jewish mathematician to be appointed as a professor at the University of Germany was Jacobi.
     

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Carl Jacobi Birthday & Fun Facts Facts

Birth Name

Carl Jacobi

Date of Birth

1804-12-10

Date of Death

1851-02-18

Nationality

German

Place of Birth

Potsdam

Child Star?

No

Occupation

Mathematician, Academician

Education

Potsdam Gymnasium, Berlin University

Parents

Simon Jacobi, Rachel Lehmann

Siblings

Moritz von Jacobi
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Written by Adewuyi Omotola

Bachelor of Education

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Adewuyi OmotolaBachelor of Education

With a degree in Education from Ahmadu Bello University, Adewuyi has honed his skills as an experienced writer, specializing in creating high-quality educational content for children. He is an active participant in numerous children's initiatives, including the Junior Chambers International, the Youths Advancement Initiative of Nigeria, students' unions, and human rights organizations. Adewuyi's impressive portfolio includes working as a proofreader for publishing companies and as a writer for various organizations. He also holds qualifications as a paralegal, showcasing his diverse set of skills.

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