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The most powerful radio radiation source in the Solar System is Jupiter.
Jupiter planet has polar lights. However, on Earth, this can be observed during high solar activity.
The fifth planet from the Sun, Jupiter, is also the largest in the Solar System. The mass of this gas giant is more than two and half times the mass of all the other planets, however, less than 1/1000th of the mass of the Sun. Jupiter is most probably the oldest of all planets in the Solar System. This natural object is also the third-brightest in the night sky, after the Moon and Venus. Jupiter has been observed since the prehistoric period, and its name was inspired by Jupiter, the Roman God, who is the king of the gods. The main element within this planet is hydrogen, with helium making up 1/1oth of total volume and one-quarter of the total mass. The rocky core is likely made of heavier elements and does not have a solid surface like other huge planets. The planet takes an oblate spheroid shape due to its rapid rotation. There is an evident bulge near Jupiter's equator.
One of the main characteristics of Jupiter is that it is the largest planet of all planets combined and is 11 times wider than our planet.
Galileo Galilei discovered Jupiter on January 7, 1610. Galileo Galilei discovered four of Jupiter's moons. Currently, there are 53 of Jupiter's moons recognized with an extra 14 of them waiting to be confirmed. Galileo discovered three of Jupiter's largest moons on the same day, while the fourth Galilean moon was discovered on January 12. The large Galilean moons are also called Galilean satellites. Ganymede, Io, Callisto, and Europa are the four Galilean moons. The only moon to have its own magnetic field is the Ganymede. This was the name of a Greek hero, which meant the most beautiful mortal. Io has the highest density of all moons. This name was inspired by Zeus's lover and a priestess. Callisto is the third-largest moon of all moons and the second-largest of Jupiter. Europa is as big as the Earth's moon. It is also the name of one of Zeus's lovers, a Phoenician princess. Many other outer moons are much smaller.
Jupiter's gravity shapes the destiny of our Solar System probably ejecting Uranus and Neptune outward. In the early history of our Solar System, both Jupiter and Saturn may have slung storms of debris toward some inner planets. Jupiter may also stop asteroids from hitting Earth with recent events showing that this planet absorbs some big impacts. This planet is most likely the oldest in our Solar System. The recent Solar System formation models indicate that this planet may have formed beyond or at the snowline. This was at a distance at cold temperatures away from our early Sun for volatiles like water to turn into solids.
An insightful characteristic of planet Jupiter is that it is like a giant magnet because Jupiter's magnetic field is very strong.
Scientists make use of the Hubble space telescope to study Jupiter. The voyager missions (1979)-Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 discovered Jupiter's rings and also allowed scientists to understand Galilean moons better. However, the Pioneer 10 space probe of NASA was the first spacecraft to observe Jupiter and all the Galilean moons in 1973. Pioneer 11 recovered photos of Jupiter's polar regions and the Great Red Spot's data. Jupiter is a massive planet in the Solar System composed mostly of liquid and gas. It has an equatorial diameter of 88,846 mi (142,984 km) with an average density of 0.76 0z/in3 (1.326 g/cm3). Jupiter's mass is around two and a half times the mass of all the planets in the Solar System.
The magnetic field of Jupiter is 14 times more powerful than that of the Earth. The magnetic field range is the strongest in Jupiter than any of the other planets in our Solar System. The intense episodes of the planet's polar regions' radio emission are caused due to the magnetosphere. Also, all four large moons orbiting Jupiter within its magnetosphere are protected from the solar wind. Astronomers believe that the swirling movements of conducting elements called eddy currents within its core. Magnetosphere also traps the sulfur dioxide particles released from the volcanic eruptions of Io. Combining with the hydrogen ions originating from Jupiter's atmosphere.
A baffling characteristic of Jupiter is its planetary atmosphere, which spans more than 3,000 mi (5,000 km) in altitude, the deepest in the Solar System.
Jupiter's atmosphere is around 90% of hydrogen and 10% of helium, almost the same composition as the Sun by volume. However, by mass, the atmosphere has 24% of helium and 75% of hydrogen with 1% of other elements. Other traces of elements are ammonia, silicon-based compounds, methane, and water vapor. There are ammonia crystals in the outer layer of the atmosphere. This planet is continuously covered in clouds made of ammonia crystals and probably ammonium hydrosulfide. Jupiter's clouds are present in the tropopause. The depth of the cloud layer is 31 mi (50 km), consisting of two decks of cloud, a thin clear region, and a thick lower deck. The clouds are brown and orange, which are caused by color-changing upwelling compounds when exposed to the Sun's ultraviolet rays. The red dwarf is the smallest star, which is only larger in radius by 30% than Jupiter.
Being the largest planet in the Solar System, Jupiter also has the fastest spin. The average distance between the Sun and Jupiter is approximately 484 million mi (778 million km). This planet takes 11.86 years to complete one revolution around the Sun. This planet is located over five times the distance from Sun to Earth. Sunlight takes around 43 minutes to reach Jupiter. There is a high-pressure area in Jupiter's atmosphere called the Great Red Spot that produced the largest anticyclonic storm in the Solar System. This spot is situated 22 degrees south of the equator of Jupiter and can produce speeds of winds as fast as 268 mph (432 kph). This spot was first observed in the 17th century when telescopes first came into existence. Giovanni Cassini, an Italian astronomer, first identified the Great Red Spot in 1665. It is big enough to hold two to three as big as our planet.
A puzzling characteristic of Jupiter is if this planet was 80 times bigger than its current size then it would be the Solar system's second sun.
The current scientific data indicate that the composition of Jupiter is similar to that of a star, however, not big enough to start a fusion reaction by producing internal pressures and temperatures. Jupiter has only 0.1% solar mass compared to the Sun. Some consider Jupiter to be a failed star. Due to the high mass of Jupiter, it produces a lot of heat and shrinks under gravity. However, it is not known when this planet will stop shrinking.
The main ring of the faint Jupiter's ring system was discovered by Voyager 1 in 1979. It was later studied thoroughly by the Galileo orbiter in the '90s. This ring has also been observed from Earth by Hubble Space Telescope. After Saturn and Uranus, this Jovian ring system is the third one to be discovered. It is primarily made of dust. It has four main parts: the main ring is exceptionally thin and bright, the halo ring in the inner torus particles is thick, and the gossamer rings are two faint and thick outer rings. The main and halo rings have dust particles that are ejected Adrastea, Metis moons, and some small, unobserved objects due to high-velocity impacts. These particles would usually fall back to our moon but are pulled by the strong gravitational influence of Jupiter. The Amalthea and Thebe moon also produce two unique components of the gossamer ring's dust. The rings have reddish color when near-infrared and visible lights. However, an exception is the halo ring, which is blurred or neutral. The dust particle's size range in the rings is variable. The exact date of formation of this ring system is not known and it probably came into existence when Jupiter was formed.
Although Galileo Galilei discovered the largest Jupiter's satellites, Simon Markus, a German astronomer named these satellites. It was said that Markus discovered these before Galileo, but published the studies in the later years. Callisto is also a moon orbiting Jupiter that is the third-largest in the Solar System. Water as ice and other organic substances were discovered on Callisto.
Here at Kidadl, we have carefully created lots of interesting family-friendly facts for everyone to enjoy! If you liked our suggestion for the characteristics of Jupiter, then why not take a look at fun facts about when planets align or Mercury planet color?
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