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FOR AGES 3 YEARS TO 18 YEARS
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Chile is the longest country in the world and stretches down the west coast of South America like a narrow ribbon.
Chile is led by an elected president who also serves as the country's chief of state and government. The election for the president is held every four years.
Chile lies in South America, bordered to the north by Peru and Bolivia, to the east by Argentina, and to the west by the Pacific Ocean. Chile occupies the Andes mountain range to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west on a long, narrow strip of land.
Chile is the world's longest country, stretching along a narrow coastal strip from north to south. The South American country spans 2,671.9 mi (4,300 km) in length and reaches a maximum width of 217.5 mi (350 km) at its broadest point.
Santiago or Southern Chile is Chile's financial and business capital, as well as the country's cultural and entertainment hub, with limitless enjoyable activities available, such as visiting the country's greatest museums and galleries, as well as fantastic shopping, dining, and lodging options.
Chile's capital city, Santiago, is home to almost a third of Chile's population. Greater Valparaiso, on Santiago's west coast, and Greater Concepción, on Santiago's far south coast, are the next most populous locations after Greater Santiago where Chilean people live. They come under Central Chile or Zona Central.
Because of the location of Chile (within the Pacific Ring of Fire and the Nazca Plate's subduction beneath the South American Plate), Chile is prone to earthquakes. The 1960, Valdivia Earthquake in Chile set the record for the greatest recorded earthquake, with a magnitude of 9.4–9.6 on the Richter scale.
Since September 9, 1888, Easter Island has been a part of Chile. It is, however, not even close to mainland Chile. Many of Chile's tourist attractions, such as Easter Island, Torres del Paine National Park, and the Atacama Desert, are relatively far apart.
There are 15 different linguistic varieties spoken in Chile, each of which might be regarded as a separate language. Chile's official and administrative languages are Spanish and English although a majority consider Spanish as the official language.
Chileans frequently eat a third meal of the day known as 'once'. While each family does 'once' a little differently, the dinner is usually served between five and nine p.m. It's essentially tea time, but it can also serve as a meal replacement.
In Chile's northern Antofagasta Region, the Loa River is a U-shaped river. It is Chile's longest river and the principal watercourse in the Atacama Desert, measuring 273.4 mi (440 km). Chungará Lake, at 1,4763.8 ft (4,500 m) above sea level, is formed by wetland areas in the steep valleys.
Apart from the Loa River, the Norte Grande has only short endorheic character streams due to the Atacama desert.
Chile is one of 22 countries that have signed and ratified the Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention of 1989, which is the only legally binding international treaty on indigenous groups. Convention 169 of the International Labour Organization was enacted in 1989.
Chile's mining sector produces around 9% of both indirect and direct jobs throughout the country, making it one of the most successful South American economies.
Natural beauty, as well as plant and animal life, abound in this area. Penguins, pelicans, and sea lions live along Chile's lengthy shoreline, and migratory whales can be observed migrating to and from feeding and breeding regions.
One of the driest places on the planet is the Atacama Desert. Cacti and reptiles come in a variety of forms. The arid region is also home to the country's abundant copper resources. The Atacama Desert in Chile is the world's driest desert that is non-polar. The annual rainfall in the Atacama Desert is less than 0.5 in (12 mm)! Valle de la Luna, which translates to 'Moon Valley,' is one of the most stunning fertile valleys of the Atacama to visit.
Chile has good energy resources, thanks to coal and moderate oil and natural gas deposits. Electricity has been produced by the steady flow of the Andean rivers.
Climate factors south of the Biobo river favor natural forest growth. Forests in south-central Chile and the Biobo region grow pine for the production of paper and pulp.
Chile has been the major fishery of South America and one of the world's foremost fishing countries since 1974 when the Peruvian fishing industry collapsed.
Chile's agricultural benefits from favorable climatic conditions and sufficient water supplies, outmoded land-tenure patterns, management incompetence, and ineffective price strategies have conspired to make agriculture one of the most inefficient sectors of the economy.
Cereals are the most important crops in temperate central Chile, followed by grapes, potatoes, corn, apples, beans, rice, and a variety of vegetables. Sugar beets and sunflower seeds for frying oil are both common industrial crops.
Chile's cultural heritage is divided into two categories: tangible and intangible heritage, which includes visual arts, crafts, dances, holidays, food, games, music, and traditions.
The Rapa Nui National Park, the Chiloé Churches, the medieval area of Valparaiso, the Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works, and the mining settlement of Sewell are among the cultural sites in Chile.
The economy of Chile is open, with a large number of regional and foreign trade agreements. Chile is a member of the Pacific Alliance and has broadened its trading network. The economy is based primarily on copper exports, with a substantial agricultural sector.
Natural calamities are a push factor for Chilean immigrants.
Because of its location on the Nazca Plate and the South American Plate, earthquakes are widespread in Chile. The Valdivia Earthquake, which measured 9.5 on the Richter scale in 1960, and the Maule Earthquake, which measured 8.8 in 2010, are two of the most violent earthquakes in history.
Argentina, Peru, and the United States are the top three nations to which Chilean emigrants are heading.
Seismograms, active volcanoes, and tsunamis are all-natural threats in Chile. Chile's location on the Ring of Fire is said to be a source of natural hazards. Tsunamis can be triggered by severe earthquakes in this nation, which has a coastal range that stretches for almost 3,728.2 mi (6,000 km).
In Chile, there are about three dozen active volcanoes, the most active of which is the Llaima in the northern Andes Mountains.
Lack of afforestation and the associated soil erosion, as well as contamination of Chile's natural resources like the water, land, and air, are the country's key environmental issues.
Air smog from factories and transport, as well as water corruption, are particularly severe in metropolitan areas, where the Chilean population has increased by almost two times in the last three decades.
The main hazard to the country's water quality is untreated sewage. While 99% of its suburban residents have access to safe water, only half of the rural residents do. The Maipo River, Chile's main water supply, is experiencing a water quality emergency as a consequence of runoff and debris. Drought and wildfires cause runoff, making it difficult for the ground to hold water.
Poor water quality impacts not only Chilean residents, but also entire industries. Chile's main export is copper, which requires the deployment of costly desalination technology for mines to have adequate water. Furthermore, low water quality has an impact on agriculture. There are projects underway to increase both pollutant removal and water quality.
The South Andean huemul, puna rhea, tundra peregrine falcon, ruddy-headed geese, green sea turtle, and Chilean woodstar are all endangered species in Chile.
In 2001, 16 out of 91 mammalian species were classified as endangered. Around 18 of the 296 bird species that breed were on the verge of extinction. Almost four types of different freshwaterfish along with 268 species of plants were also endangered.
Chile's geography is incredibly diversified, stretching from 17° South to Cape Horn at 56°, and from the Pacific Ocean on the west to the Andes mountains on the east. Chile is a country in southern South America and Chile borders the South Pacific Ocean and a tiny portion of the Atlantic Ocean.
The discovery of Cape Horn resulted in the opening of new trade routes and the dismantling of monopolies. It is the southernmost point of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago in southern Chile, however, it is not South America's southernmost island.
The shape of the Chilean territory is among the most peculiar around the globe. Chile extends 2,653.3 mi (4,270 km) from north to south but just 110 mi (177 km) east to west.
Chile stretches from the western coastal regions of South America down to the continent's southern tip, where it curls slightly eastward.
Chile and Bolivia have had a long-running dispute regarding coastline and land sovereignty. Chile won a lot of land after the Pacific War, including Antofagasta on Bolivia's coast. Bolivia has been landlocked since 1904.
Bolivians continue to strive for coastal and territorial autonomy.
Bolivian terrain that Chile took over more than a century ago is now home to some of the world's largest copper mines. Chile has no intention of handing over any territory to Bolivia, but it is willing to negotiate access to the Chilean coast.
The International Court of Justice ruledc against Bolivia in its dispute with Chile in October 2018. Chile did not have to debate providing Bolivia access to the sea, according to the court.
Chileans and Peruvians have had long-running feuds since the 1800s. This is because they both claim coastal boundary lines.
Peruvians claim northern Chile, which is today located in Peru's southwest corner.
This was triggered by Chile's natural resources, which led to Chile controlling Peru's sea shipping and sending an army to invade Peru on October 8, 1879.
Both of them signed the Treaty of Ancón on October 20, 1883, to retain the peace between them.
Chile lost 80 mi (128km) of its northwestern ocean zone as a result of a judgment by the International Court of Justice in 2014. This decision had a significant impact on the country's fishermen.
Despite its tiny size, Chile has experienced border issues with other countries, particularly Argentina. The Patagonia region, which includes the Southern ice fields, is the subject of border disputes between Chile and Argentina.
Because this contested region includes one of the world's second greatest reservoirs of potable water, the disagreement between these two countries is about water.
Despite these divergent views on which country owns a particular area, Chile's president promises that the concerns will be resolved.
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