85 Facts About The Ottoman Empire: Rulers, Life, Timeline And More | Kidadl


85 Facts About The Ottoman Empire: Rulers, Life, Timeline And More

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The well-celebrated region of the Middle East, now the State of Turkey, once served as the center of the Ottoman Empire, which controlled vast areas in and around the Mediterranean Sea.

The Ottoman Empire was one of the world's largest empires, lasting for over 600 years. It controlled trade and political policies in the regions over which it reigned supreme, consolidating more and more populaces towards better orchestration and religious tolerance.

The Ottoman Empire began spreading its wings under the leadership of Osman I around 1299. It shone with brilliance till the time World War I happened. The forces of the Ottoman Empire took part in the First World War and were defeated, and the ruler was forced to abdicate the throne by the winning parties. It ceased to exist in 1922. Along with a solid Ottoman military structure, the Ottoman Sultanate offered artistic excellence to the world, giving it the honor of being known as one of the most critical periods in history. The initial years of Ottoman conquest boomed with southwestern Asia, southeastern Europe, and Northern parts of Africa. By the 1600s, the Ottoman Empire started suffering substantial losses, leading the great Ottoman Empire towards its end.

Continue reading to learn more about this fascinating chapter of history and learn more remarkable facts about the Ottoman Empire!

Facts About The Ottoman Empire

Ottoman Empire worked as a bridge between the East and the West. The assimilation of culture allowed the middle ages to meet the modern empire. The Ottoman Empire's stories explore the expansive empire, its significance in history, the people who brought it to existence, and the cultural wealth the Ottoman culture brought to the table under its reign. Its emergence as the most powerful empire holds many known and unknown facts that you must know to understand the Ottoman history and its prominence closely.

  • Under the guidance of Osman I, Oghuz Turks found the Turkish empire.
  • Ottoman Empire was founded in 1299 and lasted till 1923 until the end of the Turkish Civil War, which liberated the nation.
  • Ottoman Empire is one of the first empires reigning over three continents, namely North Africa, southwest Asia, and southeast Europe.
  • The troops of the Ottoman Empire conquered Constantinople on May 29, 1453.
  • With the capture of Constantinople, Byzantine Empire came to an end.
  • Ottoman Empire reached its pinnacle under the reign of Suleiman I.
  • The maximum extent of the Ottoman Empire was reached in the 16th century, when it stretched across the Caucasus, Egypt, Hungary, and the Persian Gulf.
  • European renaissance literature often referred to Ottoman Sultans as 'Great Turks.'
  • A total of 36 Ottoman Emperors ruled through the entirety of the Ottoman Empire.
  • The Sultans lived in the elaborate Topkapi palace complex, located in Istanbul.
  • The phrase 'Ottoman' was initially used to refer to the tribal followers of Osman.
  • The Ottoman elites established modern-day Turkey after independence.
  • Osman I was the leader of the Turkish tribes, who readily grew into an influential figure after taking over countless regions.
  • Often confused, Persian Empire and Ottoman Empire are two different empires.
  • Ottoman Empire took over the eastern Mediterranean region to victory against the Byzantine Empire.
  • A new Sultan is bound to put all his brothers into prison.
  • Ottoman Empire was primarily an Islam-practicing empire.
  • Ottoman emperors were known to have eunuch enslaved people.
  • Sultans in the Ottoman Empire offered religious freedom.
  • Slavery was widely popular under Ottoman Empire.
  • Suleiman was the most successful Sultan of the Ottoman Empire.
  • The famous Turkish coffee came into existence under the reign of the Ottomans.
  • Sogut was the first capital of the Ottoman Empire.

Ottoman Empire's Timeline

From the ascension of the first Sultan to the gradual collapse of a widespread empire, the Ottoman empire's timeline constitutes various significant events that conspired through the long span of 600 years. Countless Ottoman sultans, royal Ottomans, and Ottoman forces led the kingdom in world history books. Besides being significant, Ottoman Empire's timeline can be highly confusing to go through. This simple timeline will allow you to access the long-surviving empire through a single glance.

  • 1299: Osman I founded the Ottoman Empire.
  • 1389: Most of Serbia was conquered by the Ottomans.
  • 1396: A significant fight against enormous European powers was won in the battle of Nicopolis.
  • 1402: Bayezid was deposed in the battle of Ankara by Tamerlane.
  • 1453: Sultan Mehmed II ended the Byzantine Empire by taking over Constantinople.
  • 1517: Egypt gets captured by the Ottomans, and Egypt is brought into the empire.
  • 1520: Ottoman Empire chooses Suleiman the Magnificent as its ruler.
  • 1529: First attempt of Ottomans to take over the city of Vienna.
  • 1534: The Ottomans conquer Iraq.
  • 1551: Libya is conquered by the Ottoman Empire.
  • 1566: The Magnificent Suleiman dies.
  • 1569: Istanbul fires during the Ottoman Empire burned down most of the things.
  • 1579: Ottoman Empire loses in the War of Lepanto by Phillip II of Spain and his Holy League.
  • 1683: This marks the beginning of the decline of the Ottoman Empire as Ottomans were defeated in the Battle of Vienna.
  • 1699: The Ottomans lose control of Hungary to Austria.
  • 1718: Marked the beginning of the tulip period, a relatively peaceful period in the Ottoman Empire.
  • 1739: Ottomans retook Morea and Serbia.
  • 1811: The Al-Saud family revolted along with the support of the Wahhabi sect.
  • 1821: The Greek War of independence started.
  • 1912: Ottoman Empire saw a loss of all its European territories in the Balkan Wars.
  • 1914: Ottomans side with the central powers in World War I.
  • 1923: The Ottoman Empire dissolves as Turkey wins the War of Independence and the title of being a free nation.

Famous Ottoman Empire Rulers

Ottoman Empire rulers were most widely known as Sultans, which initially implied any religious authority but was mainly used to depict rulers in any Islamic state. Ottoman rulers, through the years, had different reigning practices. Some were successful, while others failed to work the Ottoman rule. The famous Ottoman Empire rulers are discussed here to understand this empire better. An Ottoman emperor or Ottoman Sultan who has played an essential role in affecting the history of the Ottoman Empire can be found here. So keep reading to learn more!

  • Being the founder of the Ottoman Empire, Osman I was the most widely known Sultan.
  • Emperor Selim I was called 'Selim the Grim,' as he killed one of his relatives to have no competition in ascending the throne.
  • Orhan Gazi built many mosques and colleges and conquered many regions to expand the empire.
  • Mehmet II, or Mehmet the conqueror, strengthened the Ottoman army and contributed to the westward expansion.
  • Murad the VI is known to be one of the cruelest Sultans of the Ottoman Empire.
  • Bayezid I centralized the Ottoman Empire with traditional Muslim and Turkish institutions.
  • Murad VI was also one of the mightiest Sultans of the Ottoman Empire, known for his brutal means to restore the state of laws.
  • Murad I incorporated European landowners into the Ottoman Empire.
  • Selim III tried implementing tax reforms but was overthrown by Mustafa IV.
  • Abdulhamid II was an Ottoman Sultan deposed by young college-going Turks and dissident soldiers.
  • Murad II helped the Ottomans win the Second Battle of Kosovo.
  • Ahmed I's regimen came to a peace agreement with Zsitvatörök, which hurt the pride of the Ottomans.
  • Mustafa I was regarded as a weak ruler.
  • Osman II was a young ruler who came into power at the mere age of 14.
  • Ibrahim made peace with Austria and Iran only to have been assassinated by Janissaries (Ottoman infantry soldiers) later.
  • Mahmud I signed the Treaty of Belgrade in 1739.
  • Abdulmejid I transformed the nature of the Ottoman Empire with his idea to keep the great powers of Europe at his side.
  • Abdulhamid II scrapped the parliament and ruled for 40 years as a strict autocrat.
  • Mehmed VI signed the Treaty of Sevres, which left the empire of Ottoman as Turkey.
  • Abdulmejid II was the last Ottoman Sultan.

Life In The Ottoman Empire

Besides the recorded expansion, architectural contributions, and cultural influence of the Ottoman Empire, the best way to understand its working would be to learn more about everyday life in the Ottoman Empire. Ottomans conquered countless nations, and the empire expanded into what we now know as Turkey and other Middle-Eastern countries. But what about daily life in Ottoman Empire? Let's dive deep into the history of the Ottoman Empire and learn how it treated people living under or near its vicinity!

  • The French primarily influenced Ottoman art.
  • Turkish was the local language, though people could use their local languages.
  • Ottoman societies were segmented into the elites and the rural peasants.
  • Most Ottoman Sultans married enslaved people.
  • Ottoman court used sign language to maintain proper communication, even for deaf companions.
  • Ottoman Sultanates were developed with a well-planned urban planning process.
  • Courtyards were embellished with fountains fed by an underground network of channels.
  • Ottoman Empire was a multi-religion, multi-ethnicity hub, yet Muslims had a higher standing over other religious minorities.
  • Byzantium, Arab and Persian culture had the most influence on Ottoman cultural values.
  • Art forms such as calligraphy, ceramics, music, pottery, and textiles thrived under the reign of the Ottoman Empire.
  • Construction of elaborate mosques took place under Ottoman rule.
  • Poetry was one of the primary art forms in the Ottoman courts. By the 19th century, rising influence from Europe affected Turkish literature to grow.
  • Iranian Seljuk architectures were the inspiration for Ottoman Emperors. The empire reached its architectural height by developing public buildings created through inspiration.
  • Carpets had an immense role as a decorative furnishing. Till now, Istanbul has been famous for its textiles and intricate carpets.
  • Silver was the most common and accessible piece of jewelry, while gold was reserved for the elites.
  • The Ottoman music traditions followed a set of melodic systems called Makamlar and another set of rhythmic patterns called Usul.
  • Meddah was a narrative art-form performed before a small group of viewers or coffeehouse audience.
  • A shadow theater called Karagöz (Black-Eyed) was also a famous art form in the Ottoman empire. People created stories through shadow play added dialogues, music, and other aspects.
  • Ottoman cuisine was divided into two sections relevant to the elites and rural residents. Sophisticated dishes with fusion were served to the wealthy. On the other hand, the empire's minorities consumed local staple foods.
  • Life in Ottoman Empire mainly depended on the wealth one owned.
Written By
Moumita Dutta

<p>A content writer and editor with a passion for sports, Moumita has honed her skills in producing compelling match reports and stories about sporting heroes. She holds a degree in Journalism and Mass Communication from the Indian Institute of Social Welfare and Business Management, Calcutta University, alongside a postgraduate diploma in Sports Management.</p>

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