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Talamanca Ranga – La Amistad/ La Amistad International Park is located in Latin America and is managed by Costa Rica (Caribbean La Amistad and Pacific La Amistad) and Panama.
The park is renowned by the world for its extraordinary biodiversity and outstanding conservation areas. The park was added as a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1983.
The park and the Talamanca Range have an impressive quaternary glacial activity, which has shaped glacial valleys, glacial lakes, and deep U-shaped valleys, which are not present anywhere else in Central America.
Talamanca range is home to 7% of the world's species and 18% of Costa Rica's species. This ecoregion is known for its isolated cloud forests that provide a habitat for many rare species such as jaguars, tapirs, and harpy eagles. There are six different life zones in this region: coastal beaches; very wet premontane rainforest; lower montane rainforest; cloud forest; high montane dwarf forest, and subalpine grassland. Read on to learn more about the Talamanca range.
Talamanca Range-La Amistad International Park is a mountain range shared by Costa Rica and Panama situated in southeastern Central America.
It is also included in the Mesoamerica-Caribbean range system, which together with the seven mountain ranges in northern South America, forms one of the eight natural regions of this continent.
Talamanca Range is of great importance to both Costa Rica and Panama. This Talamanca Range serves as the continental divide for the Americas between the two countries, also serving as a barrier for wildlife migration in this section of Central America.
The La Amistad Range was formed over 100 million years ago when the oceanic crust of the Cocos Plate was pushed beneath the Caribbean Plate. This range is one of the most important mountain ranges in Central America, it contains the vast majority of the remaining old-growth forests in all Mesoamerica.
The park is the largest natural reserve in Central America. The buffer zone comprises coffee and beef products and many subsistence farmers. The park is protected collaboratively by the two countries.
There are many strong legal frameworks for the protection and management of the individual areas within the Talamanca range occupied by various categories. There are many initiatives taken by the local group to protect the Talamanca Range. However, insufficient funding has resulted in a shortage of staff, equipment, and infrastructure. Recent developments on both sides of the international border have deteriorated the biodiversity of the park.
The Talamanca Range area spans over two provinces in Costa Rica, Puntarenas and Limon. The physical feature of the Talamanca Range is characterized by high rainfall and volcanic mountains that extend from the Caribbean Sea to the Pacific Ocean. The Talamanca Range forms a natural boundary between the two coasts and provides a habitat for various largely endemic plant and animal species.
The area covers many national parks. Chirripo National Park is located at the Cordillera de Talamanca (Talamanca Range), at the southeastern end of Costa Rica. Tapanti National Park, which hosts a preserve of Talamanca Range, is located in the canton of Buenos Aires, a province of Cartago.
Amistad National Park is a national park in the Talamanca Range of Costa Rica located where the borders of Costa Rica, Panama, and Nicaragua intersect. Amistad National Park contains part of both Middle America's Caribbean and Pacific coastlines, including the San Juan River separating Costa Rica from Nicaragua.
Barbilla National Park, forming the northernmost section of the Talamanca Range, is a refuge for jaguars and many other endangered species. The park has a sizable population of the peccary, white-nosed coati, and Baird's tapir.
The park is home to numerous varieties of ecosystems, flora, and fauna. The quaternary glaciation and topographic isolation have favored the existence of extraordinary habitat and diversity in the place.
The tropical rainforest in the Talamanca Range is a hotspot of biodiversity. The forest here contains endemic species that are found nowhere else in the world. The Talamanca Range hosts many animals, insects, and plants that are either endangered or threatened.
The main forest types include tropical lowland forest, mountain forest, cloud forest, and oak forest. The property comprising most of the Talamanca Range offers a valuable opportunity for the protection of the precious population of species. The size and altitude range, shallow surrounding seas, tropical rainforests have shaped their ecosystems, natural resources, and biological diversity.
Some data suggest that approximately 1.8% of the La Amistad Range has been deforested since 1983, which has caused negative effects on the mountain range's environment.
The Talamanca Range is significantly rich in flora and fauna. There are approximately 10,000 species of plants throughout the Talamanca Range, there are also several endangered mammals that live within this mountain range. These include the Central American spider monkey shown below, jaguars, pumas, and several anteater species.
The Virgin forest of Talamanca Range is one of the most famous and popular sites for ecotourism. The largest Virgin forest in Costa Rica is set aside as a wildlife refuge.
There are also many incidents of logging, forest fires, grazing, fishing, and illegal extraction of flora and fauna. Oil exploration, copper mining, hydropower, transmission lines, and road construction are also posing threats to its natural beauty and diversity. It is required that a proper alliance should be maintained between the two governments of Panama and Costa Rica with harmonized management.
Mixed oak forest covers the slopes of the Talamanca Range, which sprawls along Costa Rica's southern border with Panama. This mountainous area is home to several tribes who continue to lead traditional lives in their remote villages. The Sarapiqui River slices through the mountains and flows into the Caribbean Sea to the north. Glaciers carved cirque lakes throughout the lush Talamanca Range, creating a jewel-like effect of light and shadow.
The Talamanca Range-La Amistad Reserves is split evenly between Costa Rica and Panama.
The climate of this region is high in humidity and experiences a large amount of precipitation, heavy cloud cover, and high temperature. There is little to no variation throughout the year in the climate of this region. Additionally, it experiences occasional flooding due to heavy rainfall.
The Talamanca Range-La Amistad Reserves contains the highest peaks in Costa Rica and Panama, the climate of this region plays a significant role in supporting the existence of the rich ecological biodiversity of the reserve.
The Talamanca Range experiences a temperate climate with cool to cold temperatures usually moderated by altitude. The average temperature in San Jose, the capital city of Costa Rica, is 73 degrees F (22.7 degrees C).
Due to its proximity to the equator, the country has no distinct seasons.
The rainy season in the Talamanca Range is from May to December where July and August are frequently very wet and cloudy, compared to other months. The Talamanca Range receives an average of 78.7 in (199.8 cm) of rain annually.
There are several important periods in the Talamanca Range, the first one is the period from January to February. Around this time, it is mainly dry with sunny days during the day and cooler nights. Another significant period is between April and May. During this time, there are strong winds present along with warm temperatures, but things cool down considerably at night.
This region is one of the largest undisturbed tropical forests of Central America and is home to a wide variety of flora and fauna, most of which are native to the area.
It is a difficult location to reach and that is the primary reason why it is untouched by the general population. There is a large indigenous population found in this region, which is also taken under consideration when it comes to the management of La Amistad Reserves.
Various national and international bodies have been involved in the development of the management plans including WWF/IUCN.
ANCON cooperates with these bodies and is utilizing local efforts to secure its boundaries, and enlisting the cooperation of the residents of the reserve in its protection. It has identified the most critical sites in the region. Additionally, a national park management plan was prepared and implemented specifically for Volcan Baru in 1981. In this region, the land cannot be owned and it comes under the forestry heritage of the state. Those people who have legal documentation within the park are taken into account within the decree specifying that they would have to adhere to the land-use practices established by INRENARE. These people live in adjacent towns and use their plots within the park.
The Talamanca Range is also rich in culture, the mountain range extends from northern Costa Rica into Central Panama where there are several indigenous communities living throughout the mountain range. Talamanca Range also holds great importance to both countries as a world heritage site. The range's global significance has been recognized since its inclusion on the UNESCO list of biosphere reserves in 1977, due to its environmental richness and cultural diversity.
The range is currently included on the UNESCO list of World Natural Heritage sites, it is also included in several world heritage convention centers for sustainable development (UNCED), which aim to manage human interaction with this mountain range.
Where are the Talamanca Range La Amistad Reserves located?
The Talamanca Range-La Amistad Reserves, or La Amistad International Park, is a World Heritage Site, as declared in the year 1983. The park is equally split between the nations of Panama and Costa Rica, with both of the countries co-managing the reserve after UNESCO’s recommendation.
What is special about the Talamanca Range La Amistad Reserves?
The Talamanca Range-La Amistad Reserves covers some of the highest non-volcanic mountains under the Talamanca Range and is one of the last major remaining blocks of natural forest in Central America. The 2,200.9 sq mi (5,700.30 sq km) of property has a rich history of millenniums of human occupation, with several tribes living in the reserve even today.
The site contains large numbers of fully functioning ecosystems within it and a huge diversity in the species found on the site. What makes the reserve even more special is the evidence of Quaternary glaciations in the form of cirques, and lakes and valleys formed due to glaciers. The land bridge where the flora and fauna of North and South America meet is what the reserve belongs to. The diversity found in the spectrum of ecosystems located on the reserve is baffling, with many kinds of forests being found in the region.
What kind of animal species are found in the Talamanca Range La Amistad Reserves?
The variety of animal species found in this world heritage site is a notable trait of it. Many of the region’s large mammals can be found living in large numbers in the park, with about 215 different species discovered in the area so far. Aside from that, the park’s residents are also over 250 species of reptiles and amphibians, and 115 unique species of freshwater fish. Six of the amphibian species are found solely within the borders of the reserve, including the Splendid Poison Frog. Plentiful species of birds are also found in the area, with the current estimate being around six hundred distinctive bird species.
What is the temperature in the Talamanca Range La Amistad Reserves?
Due to the reserve being a transboundary territory, it is exposed to the climate conditions of both the Caribbean and the Pacific, with the weather varying with elevation as well. The precipitation in the reserve is extremely high, with around 90% of the days seeing rain. The majority of the precipitation happens in the months of May and November, with the months of February and March serving as the driest months, polar opposites. This categorizes the Talamanca Range-La Amistad Reserves into the wet equatorial climate.
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