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The human body is one of the most complex organisms in the world; there are about 200 types of different cells in the human body.
The cell is the smallest unit in the biological world that is capable of surviving on its own; in other words, it is the smallest living organism. Think of cells in biology, as small lego blocks that build the human body as well as the bodies of animals.
These cells are of different shapes, sizes, and density and their numbers differ for each person depending upon a number of factors like the body index of the person. The cells keep constantly dying and rejuvenating on a daily basis. Different types of cells have different lifespans depending upon them. The average human body synthesizes about three million red blood cells every minute, and the same amount of cells die off to strike a balance between the number of cells in the body. The white blood cells die every 13 days while other cells like Red blood cells can live up to 120 days while brain cells stay alive throughout the person’s entire lifespan. The cell is usually made up of three main parts and carries out necessary functions of the body; without the cell, no organisms can function correctly. The cell is responsible for carrying out biological processes like movement, excretion, photosynthesis, growth, repair, rejuvenation, reproduction, and response to external stimuli. Robert Hooke first discovered the cell after his careful observation of a cork, which led him to discover the tiniest unit of biology that makes up the living world. He chose the word cell to describe it because they looked like tiny rooms. If you want to know what is inside the smallest actual alive unit in the world, stick till the end to find out. After reading all about cells and their surrounding environment, do check what sugar is found in DNA and where do cells come from?
As we discussed earlier, as per human biology, the cell is the smallest living unit of the human body, they carry out all the functions of the human body ranging from the most basic functions to the most complex ones.
Although there are hundreds of different types of cells, they can be divided into two main categories: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells.
Prokaryotic Cells: Prokaryotic cells are single celled organisms that are the most simple type of cells that are not as well developed and advanced as the Eukaryotes and are not present in complex organisms as they are not fully developed and lack major intercellular distinctions. Instead of a fairly organized and membrane bound nucleus instead, it has a region called the nucleoid, which is incomplete related to the nucleus and pili, which are appendages similar to hair and therefore are relatively incomplete, for example, bacteria and archaea. Prokaryotic cells have a small quantity of DNA in the shape of a circular chromosome.
Eukaryotic Cells: Eukaryotes are advanced in nature and responsible for the functioning of complex multicellular organisms and make up most life forms. They have clearly defined intercellular organelles, for example, humans and animals.
The major difference between a bacterial cell and a human cell is that cells of a bacteria are eukaryotic and membrane, bound in nature while bacterial cells are prokaryotic cells. While human cells are multicellular organisms that have many different types of cells that perform different functions to support and are very organized and complex, for example, proteins, bacterial cells are simple and unicellular and very simple in nature, in the prokaryotic cells are basically just all the internal cell material floating inside enclosed plasma membranes or the cell membranes with small pili which are appendages that resemble hair and aid conjugation in a bacteria.
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells are fairly different when it comes to the kind of organisms they make up, their ability to perform functions is fairly different, and they are different in their organization, but the question is if these are different cells have anything in common.
The two cell types have some structural commonalities, like the presence of some particular organelles like plasma membrane an outer covering that separates material of the cell, present in both plant and animal cells, also known as the cell membrane that surrounds the cell and protects its internal contents from the outside environment, cytoplasm which is a jelly like substance that makes intercellular transportation easier and DNA, the genetic material which is the genetic memory of the cell and ribosomes.
Now that we’ve established that Eukaryotic cells are far more advanced in nature than Prokaryotic cells, let’s learn what different types of Eukaryotic cells have in common and what functions they carry out. All organisms that belong to the domains of archaea and bacteria are known as prokaryotes.
There are four types of Eukaryotic cells also known as kingdoms namely Plantae, Animalia, Fungi, and Protists (that includes protists which are unicellular organisms. Protists are organisms that are more advanced than prokaryotes but not multicellular or complex like other eukaryotes). Although these four types are very different from each other, they have some common characteristics. They have similar structures with similar organelles with slight individual differences, the common functions include energy production, photosynthesis, membrane construction, these are carried out by different cell organelle. These organelles are responsible for carrying out the different functions and are only exclusively present in the Eukaryotic cells.
Endoplasmic Rectum: This particular membrane-bound eukaryotic organelle is responsible for the easy transportation of lipids and proteins. There are two types of endoplasmic rectum namely rough endoplasmic rectum and smooth endoplasmic rectum.
Golgi apparatus: The Golgi apparatus is another membrane bound cell organelle that is also known as the packing unit of the cell as it is responsible for modifying, packing, and dispatching proteins out of the cell and is also responsible for the movement of lipids around the cell.
Mitochondria: The mitochondria also famously known as the powerhouse of the cell, is an organelle that synthesizes energy by using glucose to make ATP which in turn are used to generate energy which is used to fuel the cell.
Nucleus: The nucleus is also known as the brain of the cell and is like a capsule that holds nucleus material inside it. This capsule is responsible for taking all the decisions related to the cell, it is present in the middle of the cell in animal cells and in the side of plant cells.
Chloroplasts: The chloroplasts are present exclusively in plant cells and are responsible for converting sunlight into energy rich molecules, which can be utilized by the plant to make its food, these chloroplasts also allow the plant’s cell to change its shape.
Central Vacuole: Central Vacuole is another plant’s exclusive organelles that are present in the middle of the plant cell and is responsible for giving the plant cell its rigid shape and structure and it also serves as a storage space for water and food for the plants.
Other organelles that are common to both types of cells include plasma membrane, ribosomes, DNA, and cytoplasm ribosomes.
All the cells either Eukaryotes or Prokaryotes, have some similarities, especially in their structures and internal organelle. The cells share four common organelles. The commonalities in the structures of all cells are as follows.
Plasma Membrane: The plasma membrane or the cell membrane is a very thin and simple layer that serves as an outer covering that differentiates the internal organelles of the cell from the outer environment and protects the contents and floating materials that are inside of the cell from spilling out into the environment. The plasma membrane or cell membrane is porous in nature to allow easy movement of water.
Cytoplasm: The cytoplasm is a very gooey jelly-like material within the plasma membrane or the cell membrane that separates the cellular components. It is usually spread out around the nucleus and contains floating materials, and is made up of a component known as cytosol. The cytosol is the component of the cytoplasm that gives it its aqueous property. All the other cell organelle floats around in the cytoplasm, and it aids intercellular and intracellular movement.
DNA: The DNA is an abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid and is a complex nuclear molecule that stores all the genetic information of the cell and passes it down each time the organism reproduces.
Ribosomes: The ribosomes are one of the most important complex molecules, non-membrane bound organelles, of the cell. Ribosomes float around in the cytoplasm. Ribosomes are made up of RNA which is an abbreviation of Ribonucleic acid and the RNA is made up of proteins and lipids. Ribosomes are responsible for carrying out protein synthesis. It is through the process of protein synthesis that protein is made, herein mRNA moves around while amino acids attached to tRNAs are joined. Protein is produced as a result of the joining of these amino acids.
Here at Kidadl, we have carefully created lots of interesting family-friendly facts for everyone to enjoy! If you liked our suggestions for What Do All Cells Have In Common? Learn What's All Within The Cell? then why not take a look at What Eats Snakes? Enemiesss That Can Really 'Rattle' Snakes!, or What Eats Ticks? Animals That Will Solve Your Fran'tick' Troubles facts pages?
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