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What Everyone Ought To Know About Velociraptor Fossils!

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Lots of velociraptor fossils have been found and velociraptor dinosaurs were raptors and bipedal carnivores.

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Velociraptors were mid-sized animals, 6.5 ft (1.98 m) tall, and they weighed around 180 lb (81.65 kg).

Humans are most familiar with this dinosaur, thanks to the movie 'Jurassic Park'. They belong to Eudromaeosauria, the subgroup of Dromaeosauridae.

We can also classify other animals in this subgroup such as atrociraptor, saurornitholestes, dakotaraptor, boreonykus, dromaeosaurus, deinonychus, adasaurus, achillobator, utahraptor, acheroraptor, linheraptor, and tsaagan. These small animals had specific structures like hollow nerve cords and the existence of various muscles. Until now, only two types of velociraptors have been identified. These are V. mongoliensis and V. osmoiskae. The velociraptor is suspected to have been a group hunter and there is firm evidence to support that this dinosaur preyed upon protoceratops. Ceratopsians are divided into Udanoceratops, Bagaceratops, Yamaceratops, Helioceratops, and Asiaceratops.

Peter Kaisen found velociraptor fossils during his excursion to the Outer Mongolian Gobi Desert in 1923. The fossils he found included a crushed skull and a second raptorial claw, marked as AMNH 6515. These parts were later classified to be in the Velociraptor genus by Henry Fairfield Osborn. This genus is a combination of the Latin words ‘velox’ and ‘raptor’, meaning 'swift robber'.

Over the years, more velociraptor specimens have been discovered and a Soviet-Polish collaboration made this possible during the Cold war era by 1971. GIN 100/25 became prominent, which framed the velociraptor in a scene with a protoceratops, becoming a national treasure in Mongolia. This fossil was and was later lent to the American Museum. By 1990, more velociraptor remnants had been found by Chinese-Canadian group of scientists. Later, Norell’s team found IGM 100/980 which was classified with the name of ichabodcraniosaurus. This fossil did not include a skull and by 2021 it got the name, Shri Devi. The Sino-Belgian dinosaur overview team found maxillae and lacrimal. Maxillae are velociraptor teeth that are located in the upper jaw area. Lacrimal is an anterior margin bone that is connected between the eye socket. These were believed to have a resemblance to a different animal, V. osmolskae by Pascal Godefroit’s group.

If you enjoyed this article, why not find out more about interesting fossils and index fossil fun facts, here on Kidadl.

Velociraptor Footprint Fossils

Velociraptor fossil footprints can be called ichnites. Some of their footprints have survived as pieces of evidence for millions of years.

Velociraptors left innumerable footprints by the formation of tracks through compressing their feet on soft mud. A consistency in the area would have been required to form these tracks, and the mud would have needed to be not too hard nor soft. Ancient mudflats are the most prevalent spots to identify velociraptor tracks. In Bolivia at the Cal Orcko site, vertical prints were discovered. They were hard to describe, but this site was most likely a riverbed 200 million years ago. These tracks are called trace fossils and they help us discover about specific species living in that environment. It is speculated that velociraptors could travel in water, but it is not known whether they could swim. If velociraptors could swim, it would place them alongside suchomimus and spinosaurus dinosaurs.

Prehistoric discovery can differentiate these animals. Some dinosaurs were bipedal such as theropods like the tyrannosaurus, baryonyx, and velociraptor. They had long narrow feet. Quadrupedal dinosaurs such as thyreophorans, stegosaurs, ankylosaurs walked on all fours. Ceratopsians, including the triceratops, had four toes and sauropods, such as the diplodocus, had three toes. They had the largest tracks. These are known as track footprints and tracks can tell us how dinosaurs used to move around and indicate prehistoric scenes.

Raptor Dinosaur Fossils

Unlike what we can consider dinosaurs, raptors used to look like modern birds. They evolved from Velociraptor mongoliensis and the tyrannosaurus rex.

Raptors used to have wishbones, swivel-jointed wrists, sharp teeth, forward-facing toes, hinged ankles, sickle claws, and their bodies were feathered. The first velociraptor fossil was found in China in Central Asia, and then North and South America. Velociraptors had three strongly curved claws. Each terrible claw was sickle-shaped and 2.56 in (6.5 cm) in size. This dinosaur used this sickle-shaped claw to stab prey. Although velociraptors had a wing-like structure, they were not able to fly because of their symmetrical feathers. The wishbone was also not compatible with flapping wings either.

There was a fossil found in Mongolia of fighting dinosaurs, where a velociraptor and a Ceratopsian protoceratops were involved in a fight. From this fossil, scientists believed that a protoceratops was a velociraptor’s perpetual enemy in natural history. Their jaws had the ability to snap rapidly while catching prey.

Velociraptors were muscular and had viable shins that helped them at speeds of 24 mph (38.62 kph).

Utahraptor Fossils

In 1975, utahraptor fossils, a new dinosaur species, were found in east-central Utah. These dinosaurs were bipedal carnivores, 23 ft (1.8-2 m) long and weighed around 1100 lb (498.95 kg). It is believed they looked similar to a polar bear.

Scientists Kirkland, Gaston, and Burge specified it as Utahraptor ostrommaysi. The utahraptor used to belong to the Dromaeosauridae family along with deinonychus, atrociraptor, achillobator, dakotaraptor, and dromaeosaurus. According to Gregory S. Paul, they were not fast, but rather ambush predators. These fossils provides enough evidence to confirm that dinosaurs used to be warm-blooded and were similar to birds than reptiles.

They are the oldest Dromaeosaurid which was similar to a deinonychus. They used to be known as adequate fierce predators along with their 13 in (33.02 cm) sickle claws.

Velociraptor Mongoliensis Fossil

These dinosaurs had feathered body structures similar to modern birds. Velociraptors were identified in the Gobi desert in Mongolia in 1924, and belonged to Dromaeosauridae in the Northern Hemisphere in the Cretaceous period along with V. osmolskae in inner Mongolia, China.

Real velociraptors used to have agile bodies, dagger-like sharp teeth, light skulls but a bigger than usual brain, breastbones, and sickle-shaped claws.

Their skulls had a length of 0.75 ft (230 mm), medial length of the skull was 0.69 ft (213 mm), width across occiput was 0.23 ft (69 mm), width across supra-temporal arcades was 0.25 ft (77 mm), width across lateral tips of lacrimals was 0.17 ft (52 mm), width across parietals was 0.08 ft (27 mm), and maximum depth was 0.22 ft (66 mm).

The length of the upturned snout of the rostral margin of the orbit-tip was 0.46 ft (140 mm), the width of the snout of the rostral end of lacrimals was 0.07 ft (22 mm), depth of snout in front of the orbit was 0.15 ft (45 mm), length of mandible was 0.69 ft (210 mm) and lastly the maximum depth of mandible from behind external fenestra was 0.07 ft (23 mm).

Velociraptor Protoceratops Fossil Museum

A fossil was found in 1971 that caused debates. The fossil showed a Protoceratops andrewsi and velociraptor in a fight and this phenomenon is believed to have been cause by a sandstorm or dune collapse.

This fossil was categorized as specimen number MPC-D 100/512 (P. andrewsi) and MPC-D 100/25 (V. mongoliensis) at the Mongolian Paleontological Center. Later in the Gobi desert, two dinosaurs, protoceratops and velociraptors. were discovered at the Tugriken shire area. The American Museum of Natural History planned an exhibit focusing on Mongolian fossils, including these fighting dinosaurs in 2000. These two animals can be seen in a fight.

The fossil is believed to have been created either due to simultaneous death or the protoceratops’s was horizontally adjusted and the velociraptor’s right claw was in the protoceratops’s jaw area. It is unlikely to believe that the velociraptor was the scavenger in this scenario. It is believed that the protoceratops bit the velociraptor’s right claw and made it bleed to death. This has been determined because there were several displacements of pectoral elements . This was mostly caused by the velociraptor or by one of the members of the herd.

Velociraptor Fossil With Feathers

It has been proven that velociraptors had long feathers by the quill knobs on posterior forearm fossils,. This is similar to modern birds, but these wing-like arms did not allow velociraptors to fly like birds.

Quill knobs were present in bird-wing bones, along with basal taxa, Ichthyornis. A fossil had six low papillae at the middle third part of the caudal margin of ulna and were 0.01 ft (4 mm) apart. Papillae are equivalent to quill knobs in birds. The zhenyuanlong and velociraptor, both close relatives, were victims of evolution in action. They display similarities with modern birds. Their feathers were not functional to fly, however they helped to keep these dinosaurs maintain a warm body temperature, scare rivals, and attract mates.

Here at Kidadl, we have carefully created lots of interesting family-friendly facts for everyone to enjoy! If you liked discovering about velociraptor fossils then why not take a look at what species of dinosaur is Barney or learn about dinosaurs with spikes.

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