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Publius Aelius Hadrianus, possibly born in Italica, is also known as Hadrian and was the emperor of Rome from 117-138.
He came from an aristocratic Roman Family with roots in Italica, in the province of Hispania Baetica, with some people presenting the possibility that has born in Italy, Rome. Hadrian commenced his administrative career as a minor magistrate and soon started his tenure in the army to gain military experience.
After losing his father at a young age, Hadrian was brought up by ruler Trajan of Rome, also his father's cousin. At this time, Hadrian also married Trajan's grandniece, Vibia Sabina, early in his career at the behest of Trajan's wife, Pompeia Plotina. When Trajan died, his widow, Plotina, said that she nominated Hadrian as the country's ruler, even before Trajan's death. Before being named Trajan's successor, Hadrian spent time in Athens, solidifying his interest in the Hellenic culture.
Unlike Hadrian's predecessors, he was not interested in expanding the Empire of Rome, Italy, but rather in supporting his people and bringing peace during his rule. During his reign, he built various statues and enhanced art and culture.
Hadrian was Born on 24 January 76 AD. There is a possibility that he was born in Italica, Hispania Baetica, with some experts saying that he came into the world in Italy, Rome. Hadrian was a philanthropic king known for his peace-making attitude. He was the son of Publius Aelius Hadrianus Afer who grew up in Italica and had a senatorial career.
Hadrian's mother's name was Domitia Paulina. She was the daughter of a Hispano-Roman senatorial family who belong to Gades. He grew up with his sibling, Aelia Domitia Paulina. Hadrian lost his parents at a very young age when he was only 10 years old. After their parent's death, he and his sister were given to Trajan and Publius Acilius Attianus.
As a child, Hadrian was very cheerful and had an active mindset. In his leisure time, he enjoyed hunting. When he was 14 years of age, Trajan asked him to come to Rome and he contributed to Hadrian's further education in topics related to aristocrats. Hadrian showed a great interest in Greek Literature and culture. This interest made him earn a nickname, Graeculus.
Hadrian's marriage with Vibina Sabina was unhappy and childless. Therefore he adopted Antoninus Pius and nominated him as a successor to his reign. He died early on July 10, 138 AD, in his villa at Baiae, when he was only 62 years old.
In the era of 1503, Niccolò Machiavelli, esteemed Hadrian as a perfect candidate. He had a good mind for military strategy but was not interested in the wars. In fact, Hadrian was one of the few Roman emperors who focused on expanding art and culture. He abandoned the conquest which emperor Trajan had started and offered peace negotiations in Iran. Hadrian kept the army intact and prepared for any circumstances. While Hadrian was in the middle as tribune of the second stint, aged Ruler Nerva expressed his interest in Trajan as his heir. After this, Hadrian left to give him the news, but his mission got interrupted.
Hadrian's peace-making attitude made him stand out among the former emperors. With this work style, he built a series of fortifications and walls around the city in the areas of Danube and Rhine rivers.
During his arrival in Greece, Hadrian created two foundations to fund Athen's public games, competitions, and festivals. Usually, Adrian preferred that the notables of Greece and the priests of the imperial cult focus on the essential and durable provisions.
Hadrian added various cult centers in Greece in his lifetime, where traditional rivalries were very common. The cities promoted as the cult centers gained imperial sponsorship of festivals and sacred games and an increased tourism rate, trade, and private investment.
Overall, Hadrian was an intellectual person who deeply cared for his people and always kept their safety as a priority by making peace his only choice of weapon. He was a fervent admirer of Greece. Hadrian sponsored many artifacts for public spaces, and building projects during his reign, including aqueducts for fresh water, bath houses, amphitheaters, and temples.
Hadrian is also responsible for the remaking of Pantheon, which was previously destroyed by a fire in 80 AD. The new Pantheon comprised of a dome, and an advanced engineering level. The domes needed to support their own weight and required an excellent combination of light, but strong materials and craftsmanship.
During his teenage days, Hadrian's love for hunting was noteworthy. He also had a great interest in art and culture and was obsessed with ancient Greek culture and statues wearing Greek clothing.
Hadrian showed a deep interest in architecture and was an amateur architect himself. He developed a half-dome-type on his own and named it 'Pumpkin Dome' because the vertical braces made it look like a pumpkin.
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