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On May 4, 1654, the Kangxi Emperor was born in Jingren Palace museum in the Republic of China's Forbidden City.
The Kangxi Emperor, who ruled from 1661-1722, was the third emperor of the Qing dynasty and the second Qing emperor to rule over China properly. One of the longest-reigning kings in Chinese history, the Kangxi Emperor ruled for 61 years, making him the longest-reigning emperor in Chinese history.
Since Kangxi Emperor came to the throne at the age of seven, four regents and his grandmother, the Grand Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang, wielded actual power for six years. Kangxi Emperor was regarded as one of the greatest of all emperors. Outer Manchuria and Outer Northwest China were kept by him as he put an end to the Revolt of the Three Feudatories, compelled the Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan and various Mongol rebels in the North and Northwest to submit to Qing sovereignty, and stopped Tsarist Russia on the Amur River. Emperor Kangxi's reign continued from 1661 to 1722.
The Shunzhi emperor's heritor Kangxi emperor of the Qing Empire had a net worth estimated to be around $10 million.
The exact earnings of the Kangxi Emperor are not yet known.
The Kangxi Emperor of the Qing Empire from the Forbidden City stood at a height of 6 ft (1.82 m).
The Shunzhi Emperor's successor Kangxi Emperor of the Qing empire, who was born in the Forbidden City, was 68 years old at the time of his demise.
Despite being the Shunzhi emperor's third son, Kangxi was regarded as the crown prince since his mother had a better status than the mothers of his brothers.
The Grand Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang, the Kangxi Emperor's grandmother, was mostly responsible for his upbringing. Kangxi loved athletics and hunting as a child. His father, who was only 23 at the time, passed away from smallpox in 1661 when Kangxi was only seven years old.
Kangxi, who was just seven years old, was named the future emperor of China. He didn't get interested in politics at first. To manage the nation for him were persons tasked with the title of regents.
The Kangxi Emperor of the Qing dynasty was born to Shunzhi Emperor of China and Empress Xiaokangzhang in the Forbidden City of China.
The Kangxi Emperor was married to a number of Empresses, imperial noble consorts, noble consorts, and concubines.
The spouses of Kangxi Emperor of the Qing dynasty were Empress Xiaochengren of the Heseri Clan, Empress Xiaozhaoren of the Niohuru clan, Empress Xiaoyiren of the Tunggiya clan, and Empress Xiaogongren of the Uya clan. His Imperial Noble Consort included Imperial Noble Consort Quehui of the Tunggiya clan, Imperial Noble Consort Jingmin of the Janggiya clan, and Imperial Noble Consort Dunyi of the Guwalgiya clan. His noble consort was Noble Consort Wenxi of the Niohuru clan.
Among his issues were the Yongzheng Emperor, Yinzhen, from his Empress Xiaogongren, the Prince Xunqin of the second rank, Yunti, from Empress Xiaogongren, and Prince Limi of the first rank, Yunreng, from Empress Xiaochengren. The Kangxi Emperor of the Qing dynasty also had issues. He later became a prince from his imperial noble consorts and noble consorts like Prince Yixian of the First Rank, Yinxiang from his Imperial Noble Consort Jingmin, Prince Cheng of the Second Rank, Yunzhi, and so on.
The Kangxi emperor was married to Empress Xiaochengen, Empress Xiaozhaoren, Empress Xiaoyiren, Empress Xiaogongren, and his other noble consorts and consorts had four other mistresses.
Grand Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang (in the name of Shunzhi Emperor) had selected the strong men Sonin, Suksaha, Ebilun, and Oboi as regents prior to the accession of the Kangxi Emperor.
Oboi killed Suksaha after a bitter power battle, taking full control as the only regent. With the aid of his grandmother, Grand Dowager Empress Xiaozhuang, who had nurtured him, the Kangxi Emperor had Oboi jailed in 1669 and started taking over the empire personally.
The Kangxi Emperor of the Qing dynasty cited the Yellow River flood control, the Grand Canal maintenance, and the Revolt of the Three Feudatories in southern China as three pressing challenges. He was highly affected by the Grand Empress Dowager, who he personally cared for in the months before her death in 1688.
Large portions of the south and west empire were made available as fiefs to three vassal kings who supported the Qing after the Qing took control of China in 1644; by 1673, Wu Sangui, Geng Jingzhong, and Shang Zhixin were in charge of the three feudatories. By trying to make the feudal princes give up their domains and move to Manchuria against the advice of the majority of his advisors, Kangxi Emperor precipitated an eight-year-long uprising. Years later, Kangxi Emperor continued to dwell on his errors and held himself partially responsible for the lives lost during the uprising. The Manchu Banners took a backseat while the Kangxi Emperor crushed the rebels with mostly Han Chinese Green Standard Army soldiers.
Following the invasion of Taiwan, Kangxi loosened restrictions on coastal trade and allowed foreign ships access to four ports, including Guangzhou (Canton). In order to buy Chinese goods like tea, silk, and chinaware, foreigners imported silver to China. Such activities and internal harmony sparked a remarkable industrial expansion, especially in the Yangtze's lower reaches.
Along the Amur River Valley, the Qing Empire and the Tsardom of Russia fought a series of frontier battles in the 1650s that resulted in the Qing capturing the territory after the Siege of Albazin. In the 1680s, the Russians once more overran the northern frontier. The Treaty of Nerchinsk, which established a border between Russia and China in 1689, was the culmination of a series of conflicts and talks.
Genghis Khan's descendent and head of the Inner Mongolian Chahars, Ligdan Khan, fought against the Qing until his death from smallpox in 1634. Later, his son Ejei Khan and the Inner Mongols submitted to the Qing, and he was given the title of Prince. Abunai was put under house arrest in Shenyang in 1669 after he expressed displeasure with the Manchu Qing authority, and the Kangxi Emperor transferred his title to his son Borni.
When the Uprising of the Three Feudatories broke out in 1675, Abunai and his brother Lubuzung led a revolt against the Qing that included 3,000 Chahar Mongol supporters. The Qing defeated the rebels in battle on April 20, 1675, putting an end to the uprising within two months, and murdering Abunai and all of his supporters. All Chahar Mongol royal males were punished, regardless of whether they were children of Manchu Qing princesses. All Chahar Mongol royal females, except the Manchu Qing princesses, were sold into slavery. Their title was also abolished. In contrast to the other Inner Mongol leagues, which kept their independence, the Qing Emperor placed the Chahar Mongols directly under his command.
In the early Dzungar-Qing War, the Kangxi Emperor personally oversaw expeditions against the Dzungars in 1696 and 1697. At the Battle of Jao Modo, the western arm of the Qing army routed Galdan's forces, and Galdan passed away the next year.
In 1700, 36,000 Songyuan Xibe and about 20,000 Qiqihar Xibe were relocated to Shenyang, Liaoning, and Guisui. Liliya M. Gorelova theorizes that the extermination of the Manchu clan Hoifan in 1697 and the Manchu tribe Ula in 1703 rebelled against the Qing dynasty and were destroyed. The transfer of the Xibe from Qiqihar is connected.
The 5th Dalai Lama passed away in 1682, but the Tibetan desi (regent), Sangye Gyatso, didn't inform the Kangxi emperor of the Qing dynasty until 1697. Additionally, he maintained contact with Dzungar opponents of the Qing dynasty. The Kangxi Emperor was extremely upset by everything that had happened. The Khoshut king Lha-bzang Khan eventually overthrew Sangye Gyatso and executed him in 1705. Lha-bzang Khan was appointed regent of Tibet by the Kangxi Emperor as payment for helping him get rid of his longtime foe, the Dalai Lama. In 1717, the Dzungar Khanate, an alliance of Oirat tribes centered in Xinjiang areas, invaded Tibet as part of its ongoing threat to the Qing dynasty. With a 6,000-strong force, they conquered Lhasa and killed Lha-bzang Khan. A Qing army dispatched to the area in 1718 was routed by the Dzungars at the Battle of the Salween River, which they held onto for three years. The Qing army did not seize Lhasa until 1720 when the Kangxi Emperor dispatched a stronger expedition force to battle with the Dzungars.
The Kangxi Emperor of the Qing dynasty commissioned the creation of the Kangxi Dictionary, a collection of Chinese character definitions, during his rule. Many Han Chinese scholar-bureaucrats first refused to serve the Kangxi Emperor and stayed faithful to the Ming dynasty, so this was perceived as the emperor's attempt to win their favour. However, the Kangxi Emperor pushed the scholars to gradually take on larger tasks until they were adopting the responsibilities of state officials by enticing them to work on the dictionary without asking them to serve the Qing royal court formally.
The Quan Tangshi, a collection of Tang poetry, was written in 1705 at the command of the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing dynasty. The Kangxi Emperor also desired to transfer Western technologies into China because he was interested in them. This was done through Jesuit missionaries like Karel Slavek, who created the first accurate map of Beijing, China, on the orders of the Kangxi Emperor or Ferdinand Verbiest, who the Kangxi Emperor frequently called into meetings.
The Kangxi Emperor of the Qing dynasty was the first Chinese emperor to play a musical instrument from western culture. Thomas Pereira hired Karel Slavek to serve as the court musician and taught him how to play the harpsichord. Spinet was being played by Slavek, and the Kangxi Emperor would eventually play on it as well. He created a Chinese calendar as well. During the rule of the Kangxi Emperor, China's iconic blue and white porcelain most likely reached its peak.
Italian priest Matteo Ripa was dispatched to China by the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples and worked as a copper engraver and painter at the Qing court from 1711 to 1723. He brought four young Chinese Christians back to Naples from China in 1723 so that he might train them as priests and send them back to China as missionaries. The Collegio dei Cinesi, authorized by Pope Clement XII to aid in the spread of Christianity in China, was officially launched at this time. The Istituto Orientale and the current Naples Eastern University were both born out of this Chinese Institute, the first school of Sinology in Europe. These all occurred because of the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing dynasty.
The Kangxi Emperor greatly strengthened the Qing dynasty in China. The key event of the Ming dynasty to Qing dynasty transition was the fall of the capital Beijing to Li Zicheng's peasant rebels in 1644, followed by the Manchus' conquest and the coronation of the five-year-old Shunzhi Emperor. When the Kangxi Emperor replaced the deceased Shunzhi Emperor in 1661, the Qing dynasty's conquest of China proper was nearly finished.
Leading Manchus were already utilizing Chinese structures and becoming Confucian thinkers while upholding Manchu culture within their own ranks. The conquest was finished by the Kangxi Emperor. He also ended all substantial military threats and modified the central administrative apparatus that had been left over from the Ming dynasty.
In normal times, the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing dynasty would rise early and retire late, read and respond to a large number of memorials each day, consult with his councilors, and give them to audiences. However, during times of war, he might read memorials from the war front until after midnight or even be away on a campaign, as was the case with the Dzungar conflict.
In Louis Cha's wuxia novel 'The Deer and the Cauldron,' the Kangxi Emperor and the protagonist, Wei Xiaobao, accidentally become good friends while they are young. Wei plays a crucial part in determining how critical historical events of the Kangxi dynasty play out and aids the emperor in solidifying his control over the Qing Empire.
The Kangxi Emperor learns that his father, the Shunzhi Emperor, has become a monk in a monastery on Mount Wutai in Liang Yusheng's wuxia novel 'Qijian Xia Tianshan.’ To cement his control, he instructs a close aide to murder his father and later tries to cover up the crime.
The Kangxi Emperor of the Qing empire demonstrated his ability as a military leader during the only military campaign in which he was actively engaged, which was against the Dzungar Mongols. 'How affectionate and sympathetic was his communion with the rank-and-file, how selective and yet masterful his relationship with his generals,' claims Finer, quoting from the emperor's writings.
After years of conflict and upheaval, the reign of the Kangxi Emperor brought about long-term stability and relative affluence. He started the time period that was known as the ‘High Qing' or ‘Prosperous Era of Kangxi and Qianlong,’ which continued for several generations after his passing. In addition, his court produced literary works like the Kangxi Dictionary.
Jesuits were heavily involved in the imperial court during the first several decades of the Kangxi Emperor's rule. They oversaw the imperial observatory using their astronomical expertise. The Treaty of Nerchinsk negotiations were translated by Thomas Pereira and Jean-François Gerbillon. The Kangxi Emperor was appreciative of the Jesuits' services, their ability to translate various languages, and the advances they provided his army in the fields of cannon production and artillery, the latter of which allowed the Qing Empire to annex the Kingdom of Tungning.
The Kangxi Emperor also liked the Jesuits' courteous and discreet demeanor; they were fluent in Chinese and wore the finest silk robes. When Pereira asked for religious tolerance in 1692, the Kangxi Emperor was eager to comply and issued the Edict of Toleration, which acknowledged Catholicism, forbade attacks on their churches, authorized their missions, and permitted Chinese citizens to practice Christianity.
During the winter of 1722, Kangxi Emperor became unwell and passed away. He designated Yinzhen, his fourth son, as his successor. The Yongzheng Emperor, Yinzhen, ascended to the throne. The Qianlong Emperor, his grandson, would have continued to rule, but he abdicated in order to respect the Kangxi Emperor.
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