Oliver Cromwell Birthday & Fun Facts | Kidadl


Oliver Cromwell Birthday & Fun Facts

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Oliver Cromwell Birthday Highlights

Birth Name
Place Of Birth
, UK
424 years old
Birth Date
April 25 1599

Oliver Cromwell Facts

Child Star?
Education & Qualifications
Sidney Sussex College
Current Partner
Elizabeth Bourchier
Robert Cromwell, Elizabeth Steward

About Oliver Cromwell 

Despite having passed away more than 350 years ago, Cromwell continues to elicit powerful feelings due to his enormous contribution to a turbulent and dramatic moment in British history.

Surprisingly, Oliver Cromwell joined the military when he was over 40 years old. He led a horse force that he had organized for Parliament at the start of the Civil War in 1642.

Cromwell was born into a wealthy, middle-class family and received a good education. He entered politics in the '30s and quickly rose to prominence as a member of Parliament. Cromwell was a strong believer in the Puritan faith and was deeply opposed to the perceived excesses and corruption of the Stuart monarchy. In 1642, the English Civil War broke out between the parliamentary forces, led by Cromwell, and the royalist forces, led by King Charles I. The conflict was fought over a number of issues, including the power of the monarchy, the role of Parliament, and the place of religion in English society.

A Parliamentary army formed mostly in East Anglia, the Army of the Eastern Association, selected Oliver Cromwell as a cavalry commander in February 1644. This army participated with the Parliamentarian troops in the Battle of Marston Moor in July of that year. Cromwell emerged as a key military leader for the parliamentary forces, and his victory at the Battle of Marston Moor in 1644 was a turning point in the war. In 1649, after several years of conflict, the parliamentary forces captured and executed King Charles I, effectively ending the monarchy in England. The execution warrant for King Charles I was signed in 1649 by many people, including Cromwell. He was a prominent member of the Rump Parliament during the succeeding Commonwealth era. The campaign began with massacres at Drogheda and Wexford, where there was widespread killing of Catholic soldiers and civilians alike. It was launched by Parliament to eliminate support for the exiled King Charles II. Cromwell defended this by arguing that it was in accordance with the rules of war and that it would promote quicker surrenders elsewhere, sparing lives in the process.

Cromwell was appointed Lord Protector, and he ruled with absolute power for the next five years. As Lord Protector, Cromwell implemented a number of reforms, including the abolition of the Anglican Church and the establishment of a more puritanical form of Christianity. He also implemented a number of social and economic reforms, including the expansion of trade and industry and the improvement of education. Additionally, he perpetuated the century-old practice of Protestants being settled on land that had been taken from the Irish. He, therefore, came to represent this strategy that brought England's political power to Ireland. Although first out-maneuvered by the Scots, Cromwell was victorious at the Battle of Dunbar in September 1650. At the Battle of Worcester a year later, he decisively defeated the Scots. This was his last significant field activity.

From September 1651, Cromwell's role changed from that of a soldier to that of a politician. He employed the Army to dissolve the Rump Parliament in 1653 after becoming impatient with its narrow agenda and approach to finding answers for the Commonwealth. He eventually attained the title of Lord Protector and became the leader of an executive council. However, Cromwell's Protectorate Parliaments were unable to agree with him. He fired them and replaced them with his major generals, who were in charge of the nation. Lord Protector Cromwell remained in that role until his death in 1658. He was buried in Westminster Abbey and given a lavish state burial.

However, Cromwell's rule was not without controversy. He was accused of being a military dictator, and many opposed his strict religious policies and his suppression of political opposition. His rule was also marked by several foreign wars, including the conquest of Ireland and the attempted invasion of Scotland.

Childhood And Education

Oliver Cromwell was born on April 25, 1599. He was born in Huntingdon, Huntingdonshire, in the Kingdom of England. His parents were Robert Cromwell and Elizabeth Steward. She was the daughter of William Steward.

Cromwell was a direct descendant of Henry VIII's minister, Katherine Cromwell. She was the older sister of Tudor leader Thomas Cromwell. His baptism took place at St John's Church. Oliver went to Huntingdon Grammar School before enrolling in Cambridge's Sidney Sussex College to further his education. He graduated from college without a degree in 1617 when his father passed away.

Family and Relationships

Oliver Cromwell married Elizabeth Bourchier in 1620. She was the daughter of a rich Essex-based leather trader named Sir James Bourchier. They had nine kids together. On September 3, 1658, Cromwell passed away in Whitehall. His death is thought to have been brought on by a urinary infection-related septicemia. His remains were interred at Westminster Abbey.

Career And Professional Highlights

Best Known For…

In 1628, Cromwell was elected to represent Huntingdon in Parliament. King Charles I had levied a tax without the approval of the legislature. He adjourned the legislature after the Parliament approved a Petition of Right.

Oliver Cromwell relocated to St. Ives and started farming. He converted to Puritanism. Cromwell inherited his uncle's assets and his position as tithe collector for Ely Cathedral in 1636. When King Charles called for the Short Parliament in 1640 due to a lack of funding during the Bishops' War, Oliver Cromwell came back as the MP for Cambridge. When MPs refused to provide him with war funding, it was disbanded.

Following the conclusion of the Bishops' War, the impoverished King Charles I called for the Long Parliament. The Triennial Act was passed in 1641, which ensured that parliament would meet once every three years. Cromwell was reinstated as a representative for Cambridge. In 1642, there was a war because the parliament and the monarch could not settle their differences.

Oliver Cromwell created a cavalry unit after being appointed Captain of Horses. He participated in the contentious Battle of Edgehill. In 1643, he received a promotion to Colonel of Horses. He was appointed Governor of Ely and promoted to the rank of Lieutenant General of Horses. At Marston Moor, he assisted in the parliamentary forces' triumph but could not overwhelm royal troops.

He won the 'Second Battle of Newbury' in 1644 against the Royalists without obtaining a tactical advantage. He complained to the House of Commons about the leadership of Manchester and the Earl of Essex. The Self-Denying Ordinance was established by the Parliament in 1645. It mandated that members of the House of Commons and the Lords must choose between holding civil office and military command. Cromwell opted for military leadership.

The King's army was routed by the 'New Model Army' in the Battle of Naseby in 1645. Cromwell's troops, who had been promoted to Lieutenant-General, destroyed the Royalist cavalry. He then surrounded the Catholic stronghold of Basing House.

In 1646, King Charles gave up on the Scots. They delivered him to the Parliamentarians before leaving England. When Oxford was given up, the Civil War was over. Cromwell became unwell and was unable to work for one month. The New Model Army gathered warriors in retaliation against the legislators for the Presbyterian Church settlement. Cromwell backed the so-called New Model Army. He presented a plan in Putney to limit the authority of the executives. He also advocated for the reinstatement of an optional Episcopalian settlement and the creation of periodically elected parliaments. Complete political equality was what the Levellers fought for.

Meanwhile, King Charles I fled Hampton Court and sought to negotiate an invasion of England with the Scots. The second English Civil War resulted from this in 1648. Parliamentarians who had bargained with the monarch were barred from taking their seats. The other MPs concurred, and Charles was found guilty of treason and put to death. There were 59 signatories on the execution warrant, including Cromwell.

The Scots and the Irish desired the crowning of Charles' son. Cromwell engaged in a brutal conflict with Scottish and Irish soldiers from 1649 until 1651. The second English Civil War ended when Charles II escaped to Holland. Oliver Cromwell replaced the Rump Parliament with members chosen by the Church. He rose to become the most powerful man in England. General Lambert introduced a new constitution after dissolving it.

Oliver Cromwell was appointed Lord Protector in 1653 and presided over an administrative council governed by a written constitution. The next year, the Protectorate Parliament was dissolved. Major general appointments turned out to be unpopular.

A second Protectorate Parliament was created for him. His followers proposed a constitution in 1657 that reduced the Council's authority and called for his coronation. He turned down the Crown but agreed to the rest of the petition. Republicans and a portion of the Army opposed him when parliament was called in 1658. He then dissolved the Parliament. In the same period, his health deteriorated. He was laid to rest at Westminster Abbey.

What awards did Oliver Cromwell win?

The House of Commons extended Cromwell's commission for another six months in January 1646. They gave him £2,500 a year in seized Royalist estates in exchange for his services.

Oliver Cromwell’s Hobbies And Interests

Oliver Cromwell enjoyed reading his Bible, hunting and singing. He liked learning new things (especially listening to the organ). Additionally, Cromwell had an excellent sense of horses.

Other Interesting Oliver Cromwell Facts And Trivia

  • Oliver Cromwell put down the South Wales revolt of Royalists. In 1648, he defeated the Scottish Royalist Army in the 'Battle of Preston'. This brought an end to the second 'English Civil War'.
  • Cromwell credited Divine Providence with bringing him prosperity throughout his tumultuous career.
  • Cromwell didn't have the chance to gain power until the English civil wars of the 1640s. He helped shape constitutional governance and religious tolerance by restoring political stability after the English Civil Wars.
  • A urinary infection attacked Cromwell once again. This contributed to his deterioration and final death at the age of 59. Coincidentally, this was also the anniversary of his victory during the Scottish campaign of 1650–1651.

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Written By
Koushik Roy

For Koushik, writing is all about how much fun you can have with the subject matter. A young and passionate content writer, he brings experience in social media content, SEO best practices, an understanding of Word Press and other CMS platforms, and research-driven content to his role at Kidadl. He holds a Bachelor’s Degree in Journalism and Mass Communication from Calcutta University and is currently pursuing his Master’s in the same. Over his two-year-long career, he’s interned at online platforms like Jiomartshop.com, Gamzo.in, Esctacycoffee.com, and Wellversed.in, to name a few. Versatile and creative, Koushik is excited to be part of the Kidadl family.

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