How Is Yeast Made? Complete Manufacturing Process Explained | Kidadl


How Is Yeast Made? Complete Manufacturing Process Explained

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The most favorite foods like bread, pizza, and beverages like rum and beer are mainly made by using yeast.

The foods rise due to the presence of yeast. Yeast is present everywhere around you especially the wild yeast.

Production of baker's yeast in stores has been falling, however there are several methods for yeast growth. This yeast is easy to culture and has been used for a very long tie now. Quick baking instant yeast. The history of yeast goes back 5,000 years. This single cell organism was first discovered in 1680. Initially, the fermentation process was not given much attention. Later, Pasteur, a french scientist took interest in the fermentation process and figured that yeast was behind the fermentation process. He also learned that yeast had a part in alcohol fermentation too. He found a bunch of very interesting facts about the organism which formed the basis for studying it further. Yeast has been used in the food industry for a very long time. It is popular for its use in the baking and fermentation of wine beer, rum, and other alcoholic beverages. There are around 1,500 species of yeast. Out of all the species, the one used by humans often is Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast cells obtain their energy from sugars. They are made to feed on molasses for this reason. Molasses is a substance or by-product that is obtained by crushing sugar canes or sugar beets. Several types of yeast include dried yeast, baker's yeast, fresh yeast and, many more. We have curated a bunch of interesting facts about how yeast is made. Don't miss out on them. Once you have completed this article do check out our other articles on how is rose gold made and how is propane made.

What is yeast?

Yeast is the mastermind behind all your fluffy pieces of bread and tasty wines and beers. It marked the flour or dough rise by giving outgas. Scientifically, yeast is a single micro cell organism. Some of them are capable of developing as multicellular organisms. Unlike its name, Saccharomyces cerevisiae it is a very tiny fungus. They belong to the fungus kingdom. Yeast species, just like humans, vary in size depending upon the nutrition and environment. Yeast might sometimes reproduce sexually but most reproduce asexually.

Don't be alarmed when we say yeast is a fungus. Yeast falls under the good fungi category. Just like mushrooms yeast is also eaten in many ways. It also gives us a lot of energy and is rich in B vitamins. It also provides zinc and iron that makes the body strong but not all yeasts come under this category. We all have been curious about how the yeast grows. Well, yeasts are not very demanding and only need three things to grow. If they find warmth, moisture food, and nutrients they can grow anywhere. Yeasts just like children love sugar. Instead of sunlight, they used the carbon from glucose or fructose to thrive. They grow well in mildly acidic environments. Yeats occur in almost all parts of the environment. They are mainly found in the skin of fruits. Some yeasts like Candida albicans and Rhodotorula rubra live between the toes of humans.

What are the different types of yeast?

There are four main types of yeast. They are the baker's yeast, nutritional yeast, brewer's yeast, distillers, and wine yeast.

Baker's yeast: Baker's yeast is the fungi used in bread and other bakery items. It is a leaven that causes the flour to rise. They start by converting sugar in the flour into ethanol and carbon dioxide. There are five types of baker's yeast.

Rapid dry yeast: It was first made in the early '80s by Fleischmann Company. This is an alternative to the active dry yeast. It quickly raises the dough by exerting large amounts of carbon dioxide and it also breaks down quickly. Though it saves time by making the process quick it is not a baker's first choice as many claims that it reduces the taste of the bread or other items.

Deactivated yeast: Deactivated yeast is also known as dead yeast. It does not help in raising the dough, but is rather used to stretch the flour or dough. It increases the nutrients in the dough or in any other food with which it is mixed.

Instant yeast: Instant yeast manufacturing was introduced by French yeast manufacturer, Lesaffre in 1973. It is finely powdered and vacuum packed. The granules in the instant yeast are smaller than those in the active dry yeast. It quickly absorbs liquid and there is no need to rehydrate them. Unlike active dry yeast, you do not have to dissolve them in water before using them. For preservation, a pinch of ascorbic acid is added to instant yeast.

Active dried yeast: It was made 30 - 40 years before instant yeast was made. This dried yeast is widely used by non commercial bakers. It is also said to be the true natural yeast. Dried yeast is not active unless put in a bowl of warm water. It is a fine powder. It can be kept at room temperature or even refrigerated. Liquid yeast is produced by manufacturers is very similar to dried yeast.

Compressed yeast: Compressed yeast is a fresh cream yeast. As the name suggests the water in this yeast is completely squeezed out. It is then compressed into blocks for usage.

Cream yeast: Cream yeast is basically a liquid or fluid yeast that consists of 80 percent of water and the rest is solid. It is primarily used in bakeries where the production is large scale.

Nurtitional yeast: It was made in the '50s. True to the name this yeast is highly nutritious. It has all nine amino acids. It is flaky and yellow colored. It has a cheesy flavor. This is a dairy free yeast, hence popular among vegans. though it has several nutrients it is still known to cause certain negative reactions in some people. It is of two types.

Fortified yeast: In the fortified yeast, external nutrient and vitamins are added.

Unfortified yeast: The unfortified yeast only contains the naturally formed nutrients and vitamins.

Brewers yeast: Brewers yeast is extensively used in beer making. It is also utilized as a mineral supplement. It was first made in the late sixteenth or early seventeenth century. This yeast is used extensively for making bread.

Ale's yeast: Ales undergo fermentation along with yeasts that work best at high temperatures. This yeast expires quickly as it is exposed to warmer temperatures.

Larger yeast: This yeast is fermented along with yeasts that are most active in lower temperatures. The fermentation process is delayed due to the temperature.

Distellers yeast: It is used in the production of alcohol. The wine yeast gives an additional taste to whiskey and rum. It is a strong agent which is capable of quickly digesting sugar and producing carbon dioxide. It is also known as wine yeast. It was first used in the 13th century AD.

Bowl of active dry yeast on color background

How is yeast made step by step?

Yeast can be made both at home and in a laboratory. Yeast production in a laboratory is strictly monitored and involves five steps.

Quality check: The first and foremost thing down while manufacturing yeast is the quality test. In order to produce high quality yeast this step is crucial. All the pieces are checked. The various types of equipment are cleaned thoroughly before starting the yeast production process. This is done to wash away other organisms and bacteria.

Preparation: Yeast cells mainly depend on sugar to grow. Sugar contains carbon and other basic energy required for the yeast to thrive. Starch cannot be used directly as they are complex and yeasts cannot break them down. Hence, this is provided in the form of molasses, which is a by product obtained from the refining process of sugar cane and beets. Based on the preference of the yeast manufacturers a mixture of these two sugars can be used or a single sugar can be used. The sugar in this substance is simpler and easy to break down. Salt and other minerals are also added along with this. All of these substances are given separately. The molasses is kept in a tank made of steel after it is cleaned.

Seed culture: The seed yeast is carefully cultured in the laboratory to avoid contamination and bacteria infestation. They can easily be contaminated by wild yeast. Based on the type of yeast produced the seeds are chosen. Seed yeasts are put away in little boxes in jars until they grow. After this, they are put in bigger tanks. The yeast now is called stock yeast. During the maturation process, liquor and yeast are produced. After separation, the yeast is stored in tanks. These tanks are refrigerated for cultivation.

Culture process: Once the molasses is prepared the grown cells are put in bigger containers. These containers are called seed fermentors. This process mainly multiples cells and limits alcohol production. Cell multiplication is done by supplying the yeast cells with controlled or limited amounts of nutrients and other essential substances. To avoid contamination all the equipment used in the process is further cleaned by steaming.

Fermentation: The volume of water and liquid sea yeast are initially lower. Eventually, the number of yeast cells increases when more supplements are given. The fermentation process is carried out with a pH between 4.5 and 5.5. The temperature throughout the process is kept at 80 F (26.7 C).

Extraction: Finally, the stock is separated with the help of rotators after which it is washed with water. The yeast is now in a creamy consistency and is cooled at 45 F (7.2 C). It is compressed and shaped. The yeast blocks need proper ventilation and are to be stored in airy places during this process. The yeast can also be dried. This is the final step after which it can be sold. The strains produced are kept to produce the next batch.

How to make yeast at home?

Yeast does not grow well when large amounts of salt are present. You can make yeast strains at home. The steps for yeast growth at home are pretty straightforward. All you need is flour and water. Some recipes might require fruit or some kind of fruit. You can make yeast at home by using three methods with different ingredients. This is a slow process requiring a lot of patience. If you are making a new starter it might take 7-10 days. Instead of the sourdough starter, you can also use yeast strains. The starter is a liquid or solution, which helps in yeast cell multiplication and growth.

For the first method, dried fruit or fresh fruit is used. Any fruit can be used. Dates are the most preferred ones.

You start by placing the fruit in a jar with two or three tablespoons of water. Mix them well and add equal parts of flour to the mixture and mix thoroughly. Whole wheat works best. The jar has to be kept at room temperature or in a slightly warmer place. In the next two to three days this mixture will become loose. When this is added to water the yeast becomes active.

In the second method, you can use other ingredients like breadcrumbs ale, and old bread in place of the fruit and follow the same process.

In the third method, potato water is used.

Boil a few potatoes. Add one tablespoon of sugar along with flour to one and a half cups of potato water. Let it rest overnight. Voila, your yeast is ready.

In order to use the yeast, the starter needs to be fed with a mixture of water and flour in equal parts for the starter to remain active. If kept at room temperature you have to feed the starter every day. When kept under cold conditions it can be fed every seven days. You don't have to worry about any of this if the yeast is dried and stored.

The only downside of making yeast at home is the wild yeast. The growth of wild yeast cannot be controlled at home. In labs, this is done by isolation. So, the chances of bacteria growing along with the yeast are high. And you won't get it right the very first time. You have to experiment with the ingredients and methods to find out which one suits you and your taste better.

Here at Kidadl, we have carefully created lots of interesting family friendly facts for everyone to enjoy! If you liked our suggestions for how is yeast made then why not take a look at how is sabudana made, or how is root beer made?

Kidadl Team
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Kidadl Team

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