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The Black Sea, also known as the Euxine Sea, is a notable inland sea and one of the world's main water bodies.
This Atlantic Ocean tributary is situated between Eastern Europe and Western Asia. It is bordered on the south, east, and north by the Pontic, Caucasus, and Crimean Mountains, Georgia and Russia on the east, and Romania and Bulgaria on the west.
Tourist resorts on the Black Sea coast see some major crowds during the holiday seasons. The coast is also one of the main tourist attractions for people visiting the country. Also, the country has several ports that are used for both commercial and recreational purposes. Burgas in the south and Varna in the north are the two largest cities along the coast. The Strait of Kerch connects the Black Sea with the Sea of Azov.
Swimming in the Black Sea is conceivable with a clean freshwater surface. However it is a different experience than swimming in other bodies of water. Normally, items float in the water due to the water's peculiar characteristics, which include a high quantity of minerals and salt. You can go for a swim if you want, but make sure you have someone to help get the salt out of your hair later!
If you like this article about the Black Sea, why not try reading other fun fact articles such as pacific ocean facts and the smallest ocean from Kidadl?
Between south-eastern Europe and Asia Minor, the Black Sea forms an enclosed basin. The basin formed during the Miocene orogenies, which raised mountain ranges and separated the old Tethys Ocean into multiple brackish basins, including the Sarmatia Sea. The sea is bordered different mountains and a range of countries.
The Black Sea is connected to the Mediterranean by the Bosporus and the Sea of Marmara and the Sea of Azov by the Strait of Kerch. The Pontic Mountains are a group of mountains that rise from the northern side of the Anatolia peninsula in northern Turkey, in an area that was previously home to the ancient nation of Pontus. The Caucasus, often known as Caucasia, is a crossroads between Europe and Asia. It is mostly occupied by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and sections of southern Russia and is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. The Crimean Mountains are a mountain range that runs parallel to Crimea's south-eastern coast, around 5-8 mi (8-13 km) from the sea. The mountains drop abruptly to the Black Sea to the west and gradually turn into a steppe environment to the east.
Georgia, a former Soviet republic at the crossroads of Europe and Asia, is home to Caucasus Mountain settlements. Russia is a nation that spans Eastern Europe and northern Asia. It is also the world's biggest country. Romania is a nation in south-eastern Europe noted for its wooded Transylvania area, which is surrounded by the Carpathian Mountains. Bulgaria is a Balkan country with a diversified landscape. This landscape includes the Black Sea coast, a hilly interior, and rivers such as the Danube.
The Black Sea is connected to the Atlantic Ocean by the Bosporus Strait, which separates Istanbul and Turkey into European and Asian sides, as well as the Mediterranean Sea. Along the shore, Trabzon and Samsun are prominent ports. Mediterranean coasts are usually more popular than Black Sea coasts in a country with both Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts. Bulgaria is a nation in Europe with a Black Sea coast. The Black Sea forms the country's boundary. Bulgaria is also one of the Black Sea's most northern countries.
The fact that oxygen is dissolved in the Black Sea means that abundant sea life is only feasible at the upper water levels. There is no oxygen below roughly 230-330 ft (70-100 m) at the sea's center and 330-500 ft (100-150 m) at its periphery.
In the ocean, there is a considerable lack of oxygen. The Black Sea is the world's biggest water body with a meromictic basin where layers of water do not mix, which indicates that the water flow between the sea's lowest and top-most layers is different. This is a fairly uncommon occurrence anyplace on the planet. The existence of the eutrophication process, resulting from the excess of nutrients in the water also contributes to the anoxic situation. The Black Sea is likewise a unique marine basin, substantially cut off from the rest of the world and distinguished by a huge drainage basin, severe vertical stratification, and changeable salinity.
The Milesians colonized the Pontus region before the Greeks arrived. Its beaches were occupied by indigenous communities and the water was difficult to sail. The Ancient Greeks termed the sea on the outskirts of the Mediterranean globe 'Pontus Axeinus,' meaning 'inhospitable sea'.
Later voyages familiarized the region and colonies started to be built along the coasts of this sea. The Greeks came to recognize this area as more hospitable and amicable and the name was changed to 'Pontus Euxinus', which means 'hospitable sea'. Greek colonization of the area began because they were now able to colonze it.
Water levels in the Black Sea were substantially lower during the post-glacial period than they are now. Following the last glacial era, water levels climbed, with the Black Sea filling ahead of the Aegean Sea, whose levels also rose at this time. The rise in water level was caused by the Black Sea inundation, which occurred around approximately 5,600 BC. By the time the Mediterranean Sea was finally high enough to pour through the Dardanelles and the Bosporus, the freshwater lake had achieved its maximum level.
An investigation of the seafloor on the Aegean side, on the other hand, reveals that there was a substantial flow of freshwater out of the Black Sea during the eighth century BC. Since the sea is supplied by huge river systems, the upper layers are usually colder, thinner, and less salty than the deeper layers. The deep layers are nourished by warm, salty, and deep waters of the Mediterranean.
The newly formed Black Sea basin progressively became isolated from the ocean, lowering its salinity. The outflow of fresher Black Sea surface water into the Marmara Sea balances the entry of thick water from the Mediterranean, preserving stratification and salt levels. The salinity of surface waters and deep waters differs from one location to the next.
In the south-central area, the Black Sea reaches a maximum depth of more than 7,250 ft (2,210 m). Marine life is only supported by the Black Sea's oxygen-rich surface waters.
The old-growth forests are home to bears, wolves, and lynxes. Bottlenose dolphins and over 180 kinds of fish, including tuna, anchovies, herring, mackerel, and the famed white sturgeon, can still be found in the Black Sea. Monk seals have unfortunately gone extinct in this area.
Although it was once known as the unfriendly sea, the name stuck, not because of the storms or pollution, but because of the reduced salinity and dissolved oxygen, which makes marine life unable to survive. The beluga, which is one of the seven species of sturgeon in the Black Sea, is the biggest fish.
Three prominent Black Sea creatures dominate the highest spot in the Black Sea ecosystem's food chain. They are the bottlenose dolphin, common dolphin, and harbor porpoise.
The Black Sea is the world's biggest body of water carrying hydrogen sulfide, a pollutant that has been identified as potentially detrimental to the ecosystem, making rich sea life impossible. This is due to a combination of salty Mediterranean saltwater infiltrating its depths and river water infiltrating its shallows, resulting in a wide range of fluids and flows. Organic pesticides, heavy metals, and operational spills from oil boats and ports, overfishing, and alien species invasions are all stressors on the Black Sea ecosystem. Plastic bottle caps, wrappers, bottles, straws, and stirrers make up 14% of the garbage that contaminates the Black Sea and its shore.
A convexity running south from the Crimean Peninsula divides the basin into two sub-basins. The basin's northwestern region is characterized by a reasonably extensive shelf, up to 118 mi (190 km) wide, with a shallow apron with slopes. The shelf along the southern edge of Turkey and the eastern edge of Georgia, on the other hand, rarely surpasses 12.4 mi (20 km) in width.
Different colors symbolize the four cardinal directions, according to color symbolism. It is believed by some people that north is represented by black, east is represented by green or light blue, south is represented by red, and west is represented by white. As a result, the Black Sea became known as the Northern Sea.
According to scientists, the Black Sea was once a freshwater lake before saltwater from the Mediterranean Sea entered the lake some 7,000 years ago. Many people also believe that the so-called deluge resembles the devastating flood recounted in the Bible's tale of Noah's Ark. However, this cannot be proven.
Mediterranean coasts are more popular than Black Sea coasts in countries with both the Mediterranean and the Black Sea coasts for obvious reasons.
For Russia, the Black Sea is a vital economic and transit corridor. Both Russia and Central Asian countries rely heavily on the Russian port of Novorossiysk for grain and oil exports by ship, giving Moscow an advantageous position over landlocked Central Asia.
A belief that a great flood swept over the Bosporus in antiquity. People argue that the Black and Caspian Seas were formerly vast freshwater lakes but that the Mediterranean seas overflowed over a rocky ledge at the Bosporus around 5,600 BC, establishing the current Black-Mediterranean Sea contact.
For the Greeks, for a long time, the territory at the eastern end of the Sea of Colchis, now Georgia, signified the edge of the known world. In the ancient world, the Black Sea was an important waterway. Central Asia, the Caucasus, the Eurasia steppe, Mesopotamia, the Balkans, and Asia Minor all met here. From the ninth century BC onwards, the Greeks began populating the Black Sea. They were successful in establishing commercial networks that connected to the Mediterranean Sea.
Around the Black Sea, Greek colonists established their own culture, which is now known as Pontic. The Black Sea Region is the name given to the area surrounding the Black Sea. Its northern section is part of the Chernozem band (black dirt belt), which stretches from eastern Croatia (Slavonia) to northeast Ukraine, passing through northern Serbia, northern Bulgaria (Danubian Plain), and southern Romania (Wallachian Plain).
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