Types Of Rocks, How They're Formed And How To Identify Them | Kidadl


Types Of Rocks, How They're Formed And How To Identify Them

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Rocks are mineral aggregates that have qualities that are a mixture of all their mineral traces.

A rock type can be defined by any unique combination of chemical composition, mineralogy, grain size, shape, or other distinguishing properties. Except for the liquid outer core and pockets of magma in the asthenosphere, a rock makes up the crust, which is the Earth's solid outer layer, and most of its interior. Crystallization, erosion, metamorphism, and sedimentation are the processes that turn one rock type into another

Did you know that rose Quartz, a pink form of quartz, is popular in South Dakota?

The Rock Cycle

The rock cycle describes how the three fundamental rock types are related and how Earth science converts a rock from one kind to another over geological time.

The rock cycle is a series of transitions. Igneous rocks can be metamorphosed into sedimentary or metamorphic rocks. Sedimentary rocks can transform into other types of rocks. Igneous or sedimentary rocks can be formed from a metamorphic rock.

Wind and water can shatter rocks on the surface of the Earth. They can also transport rock fragments to other locations. Usually, the rock fragments, known as sediments, fall to form a layer as a result of wind or water. The layer may be buried behind other sediment layers. Sedimentary rock is formed when sediments are cemented together over a lengthy period. Igneous rocks can become sedimentary rocks in this way.

Although baked rock does not melt, it crystallizes. It generates larger crystals if it already contains crystals. Metamorphic refers to the fact that the rock transforms throughout time.

The rock cycle goes on. Streams can break up and wash away mountains built of metamorphic rocks. These mountains' fresh sediments have the potential to be formed into a new sedimentary rock.

The rock cycle never comes to an end.

Processes Of The Rock Cycle

When temperatures are high enough to generate lava deep beneath the Earth, it cools and crystallizes. Crystals form as lava cools, forming igneous rocks. The crystals get larger when magma cools slowly. This happens if it remains deep within the Earth.

Crystals will be very tiny if magma cools quickly. Crystallization is the formation of crystals from magma.

Metamorphism means 'To change form'. When a rock is exposed to severe heat and pressure within the crust, it experiences metamorphism.

Rock does not completely dissolve during metamorphism. Heat and pressure cause the rock to alter. The mineral texture of a metamorphic rock may change.

Erosion and weathering rock occur due to water, wind, ice, heat, and even plants and animals. A larger rock can be broken down into sediments over time. Weathering is the process through which a rock decomposes.

Water, wind, and glaciers then transport these fragments from one location to another. This is referred to as erosion.

Eventually, the sediments are dropped or deposited somewhere. Sedimentation is the term for this process. Following this, the sediments can be compressed and bonded together. Sedimentary rock is formed as a result of this.

This entire process can take hundreds of years or even thousands of years.

Defining Rock Types

Each main variety of solid rock has its classification system. Natural rocks come in a variety of shapes and sizes.

Natural rocks rarely have simple characteristics and often show some fluctuations in the collection of attributes as the measurement scale changes.

The solidifying and cooling of magma build igneous rock. Igneous rocks can originate as intrusive rocks beneath the Earth's surface or as extrusive igneous rocks on the surface of the Earth.

This magma can come from limited melts of preexisting rocks in the mantle or crust of the planet.

One or more of three instruments can lead to the formation of molten rock. This molten rock can be obtained by a rise in temperature, a fall in force, or a shift in an arrangement.

When magma chills and freezes gradually inside the crust of the Earth, intrusive igneous rocks form. Granite is a typical example of an igneous rock.

Magma reaches the surface as fragmental ejecta or lava and forms volcanic glass or extrusive rocks, which contain minerals like basalt or pumice.

Metamorphic is another type of rock that is characterized by shape, chemical, and mineral assemblage and makes up a major portion of the Earth's crust.

Metamorphic rocks can be developed merely by being deep underneath the Earth's surface, exposed to severe temperatures and the tremendous pressure exercised by the rock strata above them.

Metamorphic rocks are formed by the alteration of an existing rock type in a process known as metamorphism. Metamorphism means 'change of form' from preexisting rocks to a new rock type.

Quartzite and hornfels are found in this component.

The last rock type is called the sedimentary rock type.

At the Earth's surface, sedimentary rocks are created by the collection and cementation of pieces of older minerals, rocks, and organisms or by chemical precipitates as well as organic growths inside the water.

Sediments are generated in a source location by the weathering of previous rocks through erosion. They are then carried to a deposition site by wind, water, mass movement, ice or glaciers.

Sandstone and limestone are a few different types of rocks.

Various types of stone and gravel pebbles for garden landscaping.

Classification By Grain Or Crystal Size

The bulk volume of the material, including grains or crystals and confined vacuum space, is known as a rock.

Porosity means the magnitude of the size of a rock that is not occupied by grains, crystals, or any other natural cementing fabric. Porosity is defined as the ratio of void volume to bulk volume.

The quantity of pore space in sedimentary rocks is determined by the degree of sediment compaction, the packing arrangement and form of grains, the amount of cementation, and the degree of sorting.

Because poorly sorted sediment contains a wide range of grain sizes, it has less porosity. The term 'well-sorted' refers to a grain size distribution that is relatively uniform.

Badly sorted sediment is well-graded sediment, whereas poorly graded sediment is well-sorted sediment.

Erosion And Sedimentation

Sediments are mineral and biological materials of various sizes.

Erosion is the process of silt being carried away or displaced by wind, water, gravity, or ice.

Sedimentation is the process of sediment deposition from a condition of suspension or solution in a fluid.

Erosion causes sediment to form. Sedimentation is the accumulation of eroded soil particles carried in runoff from their source and deposited in drainage systems, other rocks, the surface of the Earth, or bodies of water or wetlands.

Erosion is the transfer of soil, silt, and rock fragments created by the weathering of geological structures by wind, water, and ice.

Written By
Shagun Dhanuka

<p>With a Degree in Business Administration, Shagun is an avid writer with a passion for food, fashion, and travel, which she explores on her blog. Her love of literature has led her to become a member of a literary society, where she contributes to promoting literary festivals in her role as head of marketing for her college. Shagun also pursues learning the Spanish language in her free time.</p>

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