A volcano might appear like a normal mountain, except it is an opening for a pool of molten rock that lies below the Earth’s surface.
When there is an increase in pressure, eruptions are caused. These eruptions bring out volcanic ash, lava/magma, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride from beneath the surface of the Earth.
There are many questions you may wonder when thinking about volcanoes, like how do volcanoes erupt? Are there underwater volcanoes that turn into an erupting volcano? What is the difference between an extinct volcano and a dormant volcano?
During an eruption, gases and different rocks are thrown out, and they spill over to fill the surroundings. A 20 mi (32 km) danger radius is given around any volcano to keep people safe. The ash that comes out of a volcano can cause respiratory problems and lung damage as ash contains pulverized rock particles. Sometimes volcanic lightning can also occur. Volcanic eruptions have the ability to trigger tsunamis, flash floods, rock falls, and earthquakes, as volcanoes are located where tectonic plates meet.
There are many short facts about volcanoes and many fun facts about volcanoes for kids that are extremely interesting. Read along to find out about the reasons behind volcanic activity and how volcanoes are formed. Afterward, also check out why do people live near volcanoes and what continent has no active volcanoes.
Best Facts About Volcanoes
More than 80% of the Earth’s surface is said to be of volcanic origin. Floors of seas have mainly originated from countless volcanic eruptions that were formed long ago.
Gaseous emissions are said to form the Earth’s atmosphere. There are more than 500 active volcanoes in the world. The Pacific Ocean contains a region called the Ring of Fire. The Ring of Fire is mostly made up of these active volcanoes. As a matter of fact, more than half of the active volcanoes are present in this region. Most of these active volcanoes are present in places like Hawaii, Alaska, California, and Oregon in the United States.
Volcanoes make a hissing sound when they erupt, but when they explode, they can be really loud and even cause breaking of glass or hearing loss in some cases. Indonesia has had many devastating volcano eruptions. These eruptions have led to tsunamis, ash flows, and mudflows affecting multiple people.
There are multiple active volcanoes in the world. Some volcanoes are found in the Pacific Ocean. The word volcano comes from a small island called Vulcano in the Mediterranean Sea off Sicily. You may wonder what an active volcano is and what is an extinct volcano. An active volcano is a volcano that is either erupting or is likely to erupt in the future. Volcanoes form a liquid rock called lava, and the lava flows easily. Magma, molten rock below the surface of the Earth that rises in volcanic vents, is found inside the Earth at the core. Not all other planets in the solar system have magma at their core. Some planets in the solar system may have magma and some may not. Magma from a volcano comes up during an eruption.
Interesting Facts About Volcanoes
Volcanoes are classified into different types, and here are some interesting facts.
There are three major kinds of volcanoes. Shield volcanoes have lava that flows with a low viscosity. This lava can flow for many kilometers. Another type is a stratovolcano which is made of different types of lava. Then there are cinder cone volcanoes which don't have any horizontal layers.
Volcanoes erupt to form a large amount of ash and rocks, and they go up to a large height. Cinder cone volcanoes are much smaller when compared to the other two kinds of volcanoes. The cone volcano goes up to a height of 1,320 ft (402 m).
Volcanoes have a region of superhot rock that exists 18.64 m (30 km) under the surface. These molten rocks squeeze out and form giant bubbles which release magma.
Volcanic eruptions do not happen overnight. It takes many years as the entire process is extremely slow and silent. Once a volcanic eruption has taken place, it can take several years or even centuries before another eruption is witnessed.
Surfaces of some oceans on Earth are lined up with many volcanoes. These submarine volcanoes are known to erupt from time to time and trigger earthquakes. Otherwise, smaller eruptions from these submarine volcanoes are not noticed on the surface.
Magma is an extremely hot liquid rock that is present inside a volcano. Once it leaves the volcano, it is known as lava.
Shocking Facts About Volcanoes
All volcanoes on Earth are made from hot magma venting out on the surface but there are actually different types of volcanoes that are present on the planet.
There are famous eruptions of volcanoes on the Earth. Some of these include the Mount Krakatoa eruption, the Mount Vesuvius eruption, the Mount Ruiz eruption, the Mount Pelee eruption, and the Mount Tambora eruption.
The biggest volcano is called the Olympus Mons, which is 374 mi (624 km) wide and 13.6 mi (21.9 km) tall.
Volcanic eruptions cause a change in the radiation of the sun, making a half-degree drop in the temperature of the Earth. Pumice is a unique igneous volcanic rock that is found on Earth and has the ability to float on water. These rocks are used in beauty salons in order to treat dry skin.
The tallest volcano on Earth is the Mauna Loa. The Mauna Loa is 13,677 ft (4,169 m) above sea level, but there are another approximately 16,404 ft (5,000 m) of the mountain that goes under the sea, making it even higher than Mount Everest. This volcano is located in Hawaii. The lava flow from this active volcano has been known to destroy highways and human settlements that fall in its way. This volcano has erupted 33 times since the year 1843. One of the biggest volcanoes in the world is Mauna Kea in Hawaii, with a height of 13,802 ft (4,207 m) which is located near Mauna Loa.
Italy is the European country that is said to have the most volcanic eruptions on Earth.
The soil near these volcanoes, however, is more rich and fertile compared to soil anywhere else in the world.
Weird Facts About Volcanoes
Pumice is a rock that looks like it is full of bubbly holes, and it is the only rock that can float. There are volcanoes called formidable super volcanoes. They are more humongous than other volcanoes.
As per the definition, any volcano that has erupted in the last 10,000 years or is undergoing any activity is known as an active volcano.
An eruption from a super volcano can cause a rain of hellfire, and this causes a great change in the climatic condition itself. Though these eruptions rarely take place, they have a very negative long term effect on the Earth. The Yellowstone National Park is one of the locations of a super volcano. The largest eruption ever was observed in the year 1815 from Mount Tambora on the island of Sumbawa of Indonesia.
Some volcanic eruptions are different; they can collapse the magma chamber, which leads to the formation of craters in the surface called the Caldera. Some volcanoes make beautiful scenes after an eruption, like the Kasatochi volcano of Alaska. It makes a beautiful orange and coral-colored sunset that makes the sight a beautiful one. This is due to the fine ash particle that scatters the sun’s rays.
Here at Kidadl, we have carefully created lots of interesting family-friendly facts for everyone to enjoy! If you liked our suggestions for facts about volcanoes then why not take a look at interesting fossils or Velociraptor fossils.
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