Civilization is often described as an aspect of human society that has established several kinds of administration, culture, economy, norms, and advanced systems.
The fascinating facts about ancient history, the ancient world, and the earliest civilizations might appear to some people as weird, especially when compared to our modern world. Humans have invented a unique writing system at least five times throughout history, allowing them to organize their ideas and record and transfer information which helps us learn about them today.
The first civilizations were the Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Chinese, and Indus Valley civilizations.
Ancient Egypt was a subdivision of prehistoric Africa, located in the lower reaches of the Nile River and situated in what is now Egypt. The history of Ancient Egypt unfolded as a series of prosperous realms that were separated and divided from each other by rather unstable periods that we now call Intermediate Periods. These were, namely, the Old Kingdom belonging to the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom belonging to the Middle Bronze Age, and lastly, the New Kingdom that belonged to the Late Bronze Age. Ancient Egyptians worshiped many dwarf celestial beings, including Bes, the Egyptian god of dreams, karma, and mobility. Ptah, the Egyptian god of dialects, skills, and creativity. This is why these gods were were never presented in a comic manner, and their funerals were lavish. Ancient Egypt is a well-known example of an early culture's perspective on development.
The Indus Valley civilization, also known as the Indus civilization, was a Bronze Age development in the northern areas of South Asia that existed from 3300-1300 BC and in its most advanced structure from 2600-1900 BC. It was one of the three first developments of the Middle East and South Asia, along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. It was the most overwhelming of the three, with destinations stretching from present-day Afghanistan, through much of Pakistan, and into western northwestern India. It thrived near the basins of the Indus River, which runs through Pakistan, along with a network of mostly rain-fed rivers that previously flowed alongside the Ghaggar-Hakra stream in northwest India and eastern Pakistan.
The region of India has been home to prominent cultures, several gods, and religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism, which have influenced many communities and civic institutions, particularly in Southeast Asia. But all those came much later. Harappa, the historic Indus Valley settlement, was considered to be way ahead of its time. They had amazing city planning and arranged each of the houses in their city in way that the breeze would blow through the front and out the back entrance. This basically was ancient air conditioning!
Ancient China is known for a rich culture that may still be seen in modern China. Dynasties like the Qin, Zhou, and Ming arose from little agricultural communities. Every dynasty had its own dedication and commitment to improve and develop China.
There was also the Maya civilization that emerged much later, even after the Ancient Greek civilization. It was the Mesoamerican civilization that was formed by the Mayan race. It was known for its logo syllabic scripture, the most complex and exceptionally designed writing system in pre-Columbian Americas and its special art style, math, calendar, and cosmic system. The Maya civilization flourished throughout what is now southeastern Mexico, all of Guatemala and Belize, and western Honduras and El Salvador.
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What are the key components of any civilization?
A civilization is generally described as a complex environment with five characteristics. These characteristics are advanced cities or urbanized regions, skilled labors, sophisticated establishments, record keeping, and utilizing advanced technology.
Rome is an example of a vast civilization.
The Sumerian inscription was called cuneiform, and it was made up of different combinations of wedge (triangle) shapes. Account keeping was the first Sumerian writing. Sumerian cuneiform monitored charges, basic food item bills, and laws made against robbery.
After a while, almost every ancient civilization had farming and some kind of government, such as a monarchy where kings ruled the lands, and since the Sumerians and Egyptians, all political organizations have had some form of written language or record, as people soon realized that one could preserve and produce information via composing.
Composed language was an important form of shared communication during the Islamic Golden Age, which lasted from the 7th-12th centuries AD in southern Europe, northern Africa, and western Asia. People spoke a common language and usually followed the same religion as well. Children from a young age were taught all sorts of religious rules, knowledge, and were made to participate in several rituals.
The Neolithic Age And The Birth Of Agriculture
The Neolithic period is the final phase of the Stone Age, with a wide range of advancements that appear to have evolved spontaneously in a few places around the world.
People developed agriculture around 7,000-10,000 years ago, during the Neolithic period, which is why it is often known as the New Stone Age. The Neolithic yield consisted of eight crops. These were bitter vetch, emmer wheat, einkorn wheat, chickpeas, lentils, peas, hulled barley, and flax. The Neolithic period ended with the invention of metal tools.
Agriculture always has depended on a reliable water supply all across the world. This meant canals and streams or regular rainfall was essential for most periodic social structures. The first remarkable civilizations were developed near rivers. Later, people had the opportunity to develop by taking advantage of the monsoon season.
Regardless of the geographical and environmental differences, all of the old countries were most likely constructed identically. As cities grew in size, collecting a wider range of items became possible. Heavy and stronger pottery was used as containers for food and fluids instead of animal-skin gourds. Fabrics made of fleece and flax were also woven.
There is proof that Mesopotamian merchants sailed from Sumer to trade with the early people of the Indus Valley. The people of the Indus Valley shared several advancements with the Sumerians, such as advanced irrigation and drainage systems and the art of writing. Besides this, they also developed other remarkable cultural and social styles of their own.
The little that is known about the Indus development suggests that it had vast urban communities and cities broadly distributed and fortified. There were public buildings, castles, bathrooms, and massive agricultural storehouses. This is all construed through artifacts and architectural remains as the script has not been deciphered yet.
Life In Early Civilizations
For all kinds of reasons, early civilizations shared many characteristics.
They were generally formed from rural networks that provided enough food to support urban regions. Large cities accelerated social developments based on gender identity, wealth, and division of labor.
The discovery of prophet bones, with writings inscribed on them, revealed the early presence of the Chinese. In Ancient China, they were used for fortune-telling and record keeping. The Zhou Dynasty saw the full blooming of old Chinese development. During this time, the realm was united, a working-class arose, and iron was introduced.
Confucius, the sage, created the moral code that governed Chinese thinking and culture for the next 25 centuries.
Horse-riding nomadic herders invented trousers in Central Asia. Antique wool trousers were discovered in China and were scientifically estimated to be from between the 13th-10th centuries BC. They featured straight-fitting legs, an open pelvis, and strings at the belly for fastening.
Religious writing and iron manufacturing were developed during the Zhou Dynasty, and prominent thinkers like Confucius, the wise sage, and Sun-Tzu lived and shared their teachings, methods of reasoning, and thinking throughout this era.
In Ancient China, Qin Shi Huang led the Terracotta Army during the Qin Dynasty, while the Ming Dynasty was busy restoring the Great Wall to protect the kingdom from Mongolian invasions.
The Indus River valley is regarded as the foundation of Indian human progress. Archaeologists did not discover the Indus valley civilization, located in northern India, until the '20s. This site's ancient past is also somewhat clouded by mythology.
Regardless, by 4,000 BC, simple farmers were cultivating vegetables, grains, and animals along the riverside. By 2,700 BC, two major urban communities, Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, as well as some smaller towns, had emerged.
It is obvious from the art of Ancient Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley that many wild species roamed around in large numbers. People of this period appeared to be familiar with animals such as lions, elephants, birds, and hippopotamuses.
Ancient Egyptian women and men wore cosmetics as they were supposed to have healing powers and properties and protected their skin from the sun. They even used stale bread to help with infections.
They were among the first people to consider sacred writing. They used ink and a type of paper known as papyrus to write on.
Ancient Egyptians were intellectuals and artists. They had numerous improvements such as construction techniques, medication, beauty and cosmetic goods, the calendar, the plow, and other equipment used for farming, musical instruments, and even dental care. Also, how can we forget the infamous mummifications!
Culture In Early Civilizations
Ancient cultures were not all that different from ours.
Ancient Egyptians appreciated board games. Egyptians frequently relaxed by playing table games following a tough day's work along the Nile. Many unique games were played, including 'mehen' and 'dogs and jackals', but perhaps the most renowned was a dice toss known as 'senet'.
Mandrills were favored as pets of in Ancient Egypt. However, they did not appear to be paying any attention to them. According to research, surviving remains of these animals often showed signs of strong-arm fractures, other fractured bones, unhealthiness, and facial deformities associated with living in close captivity.
During the First Dynasty, Ancient Egyptians also established institutions known as Houses of Life, which may have served medical purposes in the same way as hospitals do today.
They also used spiked dog collars after they were invented in Ancient Greece to protect their pet dog's throat against animal attacks.
The kings later in history known as pharaohs claimed divine authority in Ancient Egypt, proclaiming to be messengers, or even human incarnations, of divine gods. Egypt's pharaohs were typically buried in giant pyramids, tombs, or hidden burial chambers. They believed that they needed riches to be wrapped about them to aid them in the eternal afterlife.
As a result, archaeologists have a wealth of well-preserved relics and burial sites to examine to learn more about how Ancient Egyptians lived. Indus Valley burials also had ornaments and utensils buried with the bodies.
Around 700 BC, the Ancient Egyptian empire started to fail. It was defeated by many realms. The Assyrian empire was the first to overcome Egypt, followed a long time later by the Persian kingdom.
Modern Vs. Ancient Civilizations
The Romans ran cold river water in pipes through their residences to stay cool and to fight the heat. These water pipes also supplied water for communal showers, toilets, wellsprings, and personal households, much like today.
The sewage systems gathered waste and sent it to nearby waterways, keeping the towns clean. Most Ancient Romans attempted not to be harsh to their slaves. They used rewards to promote productivity.
The specialists who were hired to build the pyramids for the pharaohs in Ancient Egypt enjoyed a wide range of medical services. According to paleologist Anne Austin, who was researching the excavations of an Ancient Egyptian town, evidence exists of the people having benefits of what she calls the world's first medical care plan.
Ancient Egypt had the most carefully organized medical care plan. Egyptologists have evidence of these medical care benefits in preserved records from the Luxor site. The craftsmen of the 12th century BC, who built the Egyptian pharaohs' burial chambers and tombs, could request a paid day off or receive a free wellness check.
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