27 Olmec Heads Facts For The Budding Archaeologist In You

Rajnandini Roychoudhury
Sep 08, 2022 By Rajnandini Roychoudhury
Originally Published on Apr 17, 2022
Edited by Ruffa Espejon
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Olmec Heads Facts will engage with the history of a lesser-known civilization.

Many people have already heard of the ancient Maya and Aztec civilizations of Central America.

The history of these civilizations has found sufficient space within history. However, not many are aware that there existed a culture that exponentially influenced both of these civilizations.

We are referring to the ancient Olmec culture of Mesoamerica, which remained a major civilization in the coastal region of modern-day Mexico for several centuries. Both anthropologists and archaeologists agree that this culture was at its peak development in the Gulf Coast region of Mexico from around 1200 BC to 400 BC, after which it faded into obscurity.

Olmec culture has left us with its rich artistic tradition. Out of all the Olmec artifacts that have been unearthed during excavations by archaeologists from Olmec sites, the most impressive is the stone monuments that support gigantic heads.

These exquisite pieces of Olmec art have been found in archaeological sites such as San Lorenzo and La Venta.

After an initial inquest, these artifacts were thought to have been Olmec ballplayers or gods. However, recent studies have pointed toward the fact that these Olmec heads could be representations of dead Olmec kings.

Let's find out why these giant stone heads attract so much attention!

History Of Olmec Heads

The Olmec culture has thrived around settlements that were just as successful as present-day cities.

The earliest Olmec settlements can be dated as early as 3000 B.C., but large populations of people did not arrive until before 1200 B.C.

The people who lived in Olmec cities were skilled artists and traders, and their legacy lived on to directly influence other great cultures of Mesoamerica, like the Aztec civilization.

The core area of Olmec culture was centered around the coastal belt of Mexico, where the modern-day Mexican states of Tabasco and Veracruz exist.

In the Olmec period, the most important cities that stood in this region were Tres Zapotes, La Venta, and San Lorenzo.

By the midpoint of the first millennium B.C., however, the Olmec culture had started to show signs of decline and soon disappeared.

Since the Olmecs were skilled sculptors and craftspeople, many carvings created on stone have been recently unearthed in Olmec territories.

Among the artifacts that have been recovered so far, several thrones, statues and reliefs claim a portion of the finds.

Apart from these, several busts made of wood and cave paintings have also been found, which belong to the Olmec period.

Looking at all of these specimens, one thing is sure. No other Olmec artifact captures the imagination of the contemporary scholar than the magnificent gigantic Olmec heads.

These heads are of unparalleled importance while dealing with the history and culture of the part of the American continent known as Mesoamerica.

Artistically, these majestic works of art have immense value. These stone sculptures are part of museum collections, where they are displayed as showpieces.

If you visit Mexico on your next vacation, remember to go to either of the two museums in Mexico City, where some of these stone sculptures are placed for display.

You may also head straight to the Olmec site of San Lorenzo and have a first-hand experience of getting to see the Olmec heads at the very place where they had been found.

Scholars dealing with Olmec history have struggled to ascertain the precise origin dates of the giant Olmec heads found in the Olmec sites. Some believe that the heads found in the Olmec site of San Lorenzo were most likely finished by 900 B.C. because the site met with a steep decline after that date.

The ones extracted from the ground at La Cobata have been nearly impossible to trace. In contrast, those discovered at Tres Zapotes had been removed from their original location before being rediscovered.

The fact that people involved in the study of these ancient artifacts have been unable to place these stone sculptures in a proper historical context only adds to the uniqueness and mystery of these giant heads.

Characteristics Of Olmec Heads

The gigantic Olmec stone heads represent the face of a man wearing a helmet-like ornament. From close observation, anthropologists have noted that the faces that have been carved on the stone heads match that of the local population.

All of them have flat noses and are taller than the head of an adult male human being. 

The Olmec site of La Cobata has yielded the biggest specimen of an Olmec stone head so far. It measures around 10 feet (3 mt) in height and weighs approximately 40 tons (40000 kg).

All of these heads have a flat back, and the carvings stretch from the front side to the flanks. None of the pieces that have been unearthed has carvings on the back.

A fascinating discovery was made on one of the specimens found from the San Lorenzo site. It has the remains of color pigments and plaster all over it, suggesting that these massive heads may have all been painted and decorated at the time they were produced.

In total, archaeologists have discovered 17 colossal stone heads from the three main Olmec archaeological sites. Whereas 10 stone heads were unearthed at San Lorenzo, four were discovered in digs at La Venta, two were found in Tres Zapotes, and a single piece was recovered at La Cobata.

Olmec heads are centuries-old works of art.

Mysteries Behind Olmec Heads

What baffles historians, archaeologists, and anthropologists alike is that these ancient stone sculptures were created around the time when people of that area had very limited resources. Carving and decorating these enormous sculptures at a time when technology was limited must have been a herculean task to accomplish.

The primary material with which these massive stone sculptures were built were boulders made of basalt. The closest place where these boulders were found from the site was at least 50 miles (80.46 km) away.

Even though modern archaeologists have predicted that the ancient people of Olmec cities must have had a defined system to acquire stone boulders needed for stone carving, there is no doubt that the entire procedure must have been time-consuming and extremely difficult.

Archaeologists have pointed out that there must have existed a meticulous system of gathering stone boulders required by the ancient Olmec sculptors. 

It must have consisted of first locating boulders and then bringing them to the sculptors' workshop after covering a long distance over uneven terrain and numerous bodies of water.

From what has been understood after careful consideration of Olmec habitat zones, these ancient people most likely made sleds or rudimentary wheels and rafts. 

These simple devices must have been utilized to carry heavy boulders from their point of origin to the place where the sculptors had their workstations.

Since this entire mechanism was tedious and extremely difficult, there have been instances where some of the extant specimens of Olmec stone heads were carved out of previously finished thrones.

Ancient Olmec people did not have the advantage of having metal tools by their side. 

All that they used to perfect their craft were rudimentary tools such as stone hammers. This is another reason why these works of art are so enigmatic.

Until now, no one has been able to unravel the mysteries behind these fantastic pieces of art.

FAQs

Q: Who were the Olmecs?

A: The Olmecs were people who lived along the Gulf Coast of modern-day Mexico and had a rich ancient culture in the first millennium B.C.

Q: Where was the Olmec civilization located?

A: It was located in the area that is part of modern-day Mexico, within the states of Tabasco and Veracruz.

Q: Where did the Olmecs come from?

A: It has not yet been established where the Olmecs had come from.

Q: What did the Olmecs create that has remained a modern-day mystery?

A: The Olmec civilization created gigantic head sculptures that have gained fame throughout the world.

Q: What happened to the Olmec civilization?

A: The Olmec civilization survived from at least the end of the second millennium B.C. until the beginning of the first millennium B.C. After that, this ancient civilization declined and ultimately disappeared.

Q: How did the Olmec adapt to their environment?

A: They made use of materials that were available in the local area. Since they lived in a place where the weather was hot and humid, the Olmecs used stone, wood, and clay to build shelters for themselves.

Q: Which Olmec creation was adopted by most early Mexican cultures?

A: The Olmecs had created a ball game that was adopted by later Mexican cultures such as the Aztecs and the Mayans.

Q: Which Olmec creation was adopted?

A: Successor cultures to the Olmec culture, like the Aztec and the Mayan civilizations, adopted the architectural styles of the Olmecs, who were known to build the first pyramids in Mesoamerica.

Q: What do the Olmec heads represent?

A: It is not precisely known what the Olmec stone heads represent. They could be the faces of Olmec gods or they could be the heads of dead kings.

Q: What were the mysteries that surrounded the transportation of the Olmec heads?

A: The primary material used to carve the Olmec stone heads were basalt boulders. Since they were found at least 50 miles (80.46 km) away from the artisanal workshops, people wonder how the Olmecs carried those hefty stone boulders from their origin point to the sculptor's workshop.

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Written by Rajnandini Roychoudhury

Bachelor of Arts specializing in English, Master of Arts specializing in English

Rajnandini Roychoudhury picture

Rajnandini RoychoudhuryBachelor of Arts specializing in English, Master of Arts specializing in English

With a Master of Arts in English, Rajnandini has pursued her passion for the arts and has become an experienced content writer. She has worked with companies such as Writer's Zone and has had her writing skills recognized by publications such as The Telegraph. Rajnandini is also trilingual and enjoys various hobbies such as music, movies, travel, philanthropy, writing her blog, and reading classic British literature. 

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