Roman Timeline (KS2): Everything You Need To Know Romans

Avneet Bains
Dec 12, 2023 By Avneet Bains
Originally Published on Sep 25, 2020
Happy family on holiday in Rome standing by the Trevi Fountain, little girl pointing to Roman architecture she learned about in school.

Have your children been learning all about the Romans in their history lessons?

If your child is in KS2, they may be learning about the Romans, their lives and well-known events throughout Rome and Roman Britain. Need to brush up on your Ancient Rome and Roman history?

We've put together a timeline of key events and individuals, so you can help the kids out with their school work, together with some facts about Romans that kids will love. So, let's travel back in time and explore Ancient Rome, the Roman Empire and its people!

Who Were The Romans?

They were a group of people who originally came from the city of Rome, the capital city Italy. Legend has it that the city was founded by the twins Romulus and Remus, and it was from this very city that the renowned Roman Empire grew.

Expanding as far as the North of Africa to parts of Western Asia, Ancient Rome held vast influence and power over many people of different races and cultures.

What Are Children In KS2 Taught About The Roman Empire?

As part of their KS2 history curriculum, children are taught more about local and global histories to help give them a greater awareness of how Britain's past is connected to the wider world.

One element of this is learning about the timeline of Ancient Rome, the Roman Empire and the impact it had on Britain, from the series of invasions the Roman Army made to the establishment of Roman influences and culture in Britain.

Timeline Of Roman Britain

BC 750 -  The city of Rome is founded

Legend dictates that the twins Romulus and Remus, raised by a wolf and then later adopted, helped to found the city of Rome in a series of conflicts and confrontations.

BC 509 - Rome becomes a Republic

Rome forms a Republic. Replacing the monarchy that existed, the Romans elected representatives as part of a senate which ruled over Rome and governed it until the formation of the Roman Empire.

BC 58 -50 - Julius Caesar leads the war effort against Gaul and wins

Julius Caesar and the Roman Army he led had conquered what was previously known as 'Gaul', known today as France and Germany, after a series of battles and conflicts which ended victoriously.

BC 55 - 54 - Julius Caesar attempts to invade  Britain and eventually is successful

After this success, he attempted to invade Britain. Initially unsuccessful in his first attempt in 55 BC, Caesar was victorious in winning a series of battles following his second attempt in 54 BC.

Though this did not result in the overall conquest of Britain,  it had now become an area of interest to the Romans as a territory to conquer and influence.

BC 49 - Crossing the Rubicon

Going against the rules of the Republic, Caesar sought to consolidate and keep his position of power following his victory at Gaul when others wished to remove his authority. Crossing the Rubicon in 49 BC, he started a civil war with the 13th Legion assisting him,  eventually succeeding.

BC 44 - Julius Caesar becomes dictator but is later assassinated

In 44 BC, he declared himself as ruling dictator for life, however, this was not to last. Following this announcement, a group of senators plotted against him, resulting in his assassination.

BC 27 - Augustus became the first Emperor of Rome

Augustus became the first-ever ruler of Rome, crowned as its Emperor. Originally known as 'Octavian', Augustus ruled firmly and Rome entered a period called Pax Romana, known as a time of peace because of the use of military and legal authority within Rome and its expanding empire.

AD 43 - Emperor Claudius gives orders for the legions to invade Britain

Under orders from Emperor Claudius and under the command of Aulus Plautius, 40,000 soldiers invaded Britain and successfully took over Camulodunum (what is now Colchester), the capital at the time.  During this time, the Roman Army had grown in strength,  and as a result, they were able to conquer the centre of the Catuvellauni tribe's power.

AD 47 - Londinium is founded by the Romans

A settlement called Londinium was founded near the River Thames. This settlement marked the beginning of an area that would flourish and develop over time to become the centre of trade and politics, the capital of England that we know and see today.  

AD 43 -51 - Caratacus, leader of the Catuvellauni, leads resistance forces against the Romans and is defeated

After leading several campaigns against the invading Roman influence, Caratacus is arrested and taken to Rome where he spent the rest of his days.

AD 60 - 61 - Boudicca leads a rebellion against the Roman Invasion

Boudicca, Queen of the Iceni Tribe, led a rebellion against the invading Roman armies, led by Suetonius Paulinus, fiercely fighting, destroying Camulodunum, Londinium and Verulamium (now St Albans). Following the Battle of Watling Street, Boudicca is rumoured to have died but the cause is unknown.

AD 75 - 80 - Caerwent is founded

Throughout the Romanisation of Britain, the Romans built several settlements, towns and cities which took on typical elements of their influence and architecture. One example specified in the curriculum is the town of Caerwent which belonged to the Silures, who became romanised following the invasion.

AD 79 - Mount Vesuvius, located on Pompeii, erupts

AD 80 - The Colosseum is built in Rome

AD 122 - Hadrian's Wall is built in Roman Britain

To create a better defence against Scotland, the Romans built Hadrian's Wall to solidify their position, named after Emperor Hadrian.

AD 182 - Tribes including the Brigantes start to build up resistance against the Romans, which continues over time

AD 211 -  Britannia splits into two: Britannia Superior and Inferior

AD 259 - The Gallic Empire is formed as Britain, Gaul and Spain become independent of the Roman Empire

AD 296 - Britannia is recaptured

AD 391 - Christianity becomes the official religion of the Roman Empire

AD 400 - Roman Army withdraw from Britain

The Roman Army withdrew their armies from Britain to Italy, where the Goths were attacking under the lead of Alaric the Goth.

AD 425 - Roman influence in Britain diminishes

By 425 AD, the influence and occupation of the Roman people had gradually all but disappeared with the removal and abandonment of settlements and territories.

AD 467 - Fall of the Roman Empire

Interesting Roman Facts

Here are some fun facts about the Romans to help your children's history learning:

  • They stayed in Britain for nearly 400 years
  • Julius Caesar was the first Roman ruler to appear on a coin using a profile or head, and the first to get a  bust made!
  • Many Roman objects and sites still remain around the world today - for example, the Roman Baths in Bath, the Colosseum in Rome itself and the Amphitheatre of Mérida in Spain are just a few examples. Future history-related trip sorted!

Notable Names To Know

Julius Caesar (100 BC - 44 BC) - A well known Roman general and ruler who was assassinated.

Augustus (63 BC - 14 AD) - The first Roman emperor, great-nephew of Julius Caesar.  One of the most successful emperors who helped to change Rome from a republic to an empire.

Claudius (10 BC - 54 AD) - Emperor of Rome from AD 41-54. Though not known for his military skills, he helped to expand Roman territories including Britain,  and parts of North Africa and Eastern Europe.

Caractacus (15 AD - 54 AD) - Leader of the Catuvellauni tribe, he resisted Roman forces but then became a prisoner.

Queen Boudicca  (30 AD - 61 AD) - Queen of the Iceni people who led rebellion against the Roman Army.

Hadrian (76 AD - 138 AD) - Emperor of Rome from AD 117 - 138. He is best known for building different structures across the empire, including Hadrian's Wall.

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Written by Avneet Bains

Bachelor's degree in Liberal Arts and Science

Avneet Bains picture

Avneet BainsBachelor's degree in Liberal Arts and Science

After graduating with a degree in Liberal Arts and Science from the University of Birmingham, Avneet has developed a passion for history and loves to spend time adventuring with family and friends. Her love for exploring new places began at a young age, and she has traveled to many far-off destinations, including her ancestral village in India and the Golden Temple in Amritsar. In her free time, she enjoys listening to music and reading.

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